Rib fracture after stereotactic radiotherapy for primary lung cancer: prevalence, degree of clinical symptoms, and risk factors

As stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a highly dose-dense radiotherapy, adverse events of neighboring normal tissues are a major concern. This study aimed to clarify the frequency and degree of clinical symptoms in patients with rib fractures after SBRT for primary lung cancer and to reveal risk factors for rib fracture. Appropriate alpha/beta ratios for discriminating between fracture and non-fracture groups were also investigated.

Rib fracture is frequently seen on CT after SBRT for lung cancer. Small tumor-chest wall distance and female sex are risk factors for rib fracture. However, clinical symptoms are infrequent and generally mild. When using BED analysis, an alpha/beta ratio of 8 Gy appears most effective for discriminating between fracture and non-fracture patients.

Galectin-1 promotes lung cancer tumor metastasis by potentiating integrin α6β4 and Notch1/Jagged2 signaling pathway

Galectin-1, a glycan-binding protein, has been shown to be overexpressed in lung cancer and involved in tumor-mediated immune suppression. However, the functional role of galectin-1 in lung cancer per se remains unknown. We demonstrate that galectin-1 promotes its migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The effects of galectin-1 on cancer progression are reduced when integrin β4 and Notch1 are absent. Further study has indicated that galectin-1 knockdown prevents the spread of highly metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma in vivo. Our study suggests that galectin-1 represents a crucial regulator of lung cancer metastasis.

Comparison of molecular testing methods for the detection of EGFR mutations in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of non-small cell lung cancer

We aimed to conduct a methods correlation study of three different assays for the detection of mutations at EGFR gene in human formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour (FFPET) specimens of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC).
The invalid rates for the cobas test and Therascreen were lower than Sanger sequencing. The cobas and Therascreen assays showed a high degree of concordance, and both were more sensitive for the detection of exon 19 deletion and L858R mutations than Sanger. The cobas test was highly reproducible between the two testing sites, used the least amount of DNA input and was the only test with automated results reporting.

Perfusion Evaluation of Lung Cancer: Assessment Using Dual-input Perfusion Computed Tomography

The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of separately evaluating bronchial (BAP) and pulmonary arterial perfusion (PAP) of lung cancers using dual-input perfusion computed tomography.

We were successful in separating the dual vascular supply to assess dual-input perfusion of lung cancer. We found perfusion of lung cancers to depend on tumor size and location. Acknowledging and assessing the dual vascular supply in lung perfusion may have clinical implications in the management of lung cancer treatment.

Prostate Cancer Study Suggests Shorter Hormone Treatment As Good as Longer Treatment

A study of 630 high-risk localized prostate cancer patients shows 18 months of hormonal therapy is likely as good as 36 months of therapy. The results were presented at the ASCO Genitourinary Cancers Symposium press conference. The patients, followed for a median of 6.5 years will be followed up for several more years.

Obesity Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Study Suggests Obesity Can Accelerate Prostate Cancer Progression

A study of 500 men finds that higher body mass index, leptin blood levels, and waist-hip ratio were significantly associated with higher grade prostate cancer and suggests detection bias during prostate biopsy has resulted in
inconsistent results when the association between obesity and prostate cancer was previously studied.

A Plea for Surgical Lymph Node Staging in Advanced Prostate Cancer from European Oncologists

Clinicians advocate for a prostate cancer treatment via pelvic lymph node irradiation strategy for high-risk prostate cancer patients to be based on surgical staging. New techniques of gamma-camera-navigated surgery and fluorescence guidance to the sentinel node could improve the staging.

Targeting Constitutively Activated β1 Integrin Could Be a New Target for Prevention of Metastasis of Prostate Cancer

Researchers from the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston show that β1 integrin activation occurs in metastatic progression of prostate cancer and is constitutively active in late state prostate cancer cells. The study shows the integrin palys a reole in survival of metastatic prostate cancer cells in circulation. Inhibition of β1 integrin activity by antibody or knockdown results in increased apoptosis.

Prostate cancer risk reduction in men taking dutasteride, but some concerns remain

Nearly 2,800 men participated in the four-year REDUCE (REduction by DUtasteride of prostate Cancer Events) observational clinical study evaluated prostate cancer risk reduction in men taking dutasteride, a 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) typically used to treat enlarged prostate. Results showed that few new prostate cancers were detected during the two-year follow-up in either treatment group and no deaths were reported. However, the former dutasteride group produced double the number of cancers than the former placebo group (14 vs. 7).