Evaluation of Tissue PCA3 Expression in Prostate Cancer by RNA in situ Hybridization-A Correlative Study with Urine PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG

“PCA3 is a prostate-specific non-coding RNA, with utility as a urine-based early detection biomarker. Here, we report the evaluation of tissue PCA3 expression by RNA in situ hybridization in a cohort of 41 mapped prostatectomy specimens. We compared tissue PCA3 expression with tissue level ERG expression and matched pre-prostatectomy urine PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG levels. Across 136 slides containing 138 foci of prostate cancer, PCA3 was expressed in 55% of cancer foci and 71% of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia foci. Overall, the specificity of tissue PCA3 was >90% for prostate cancer and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia combined. Tissue PCA3 cancer expression was not significantly associated with urine PCA3 expression. PCA3 and ERG positivity in cancer foci was positively associated (P<0.01). We report the first comprehensive assessment of PCA3 expression in prostatectomy specimens, and find limited correlation between tissue PCA3 and matched urine in prostate cancer.”