Kallikrein Markers Improve High-Grade Prostate Cancer Detection, Reduce Unnecessary Biopsies

“A statistical model using kallikrein markers better predicted high-grade prostate cancer in men with elevated PSA levels and reduced unnecessary biopsies compared with PSA level and age alone, according to the results of a prospective analysis.

“ ‘Risk of death from prostate cancer is strongly associated with levels of PSA in blood measured in middle-aged men,’ Hans Lilja, MD, PhD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and colleagues wrote. ‘Evidence from randomized screening trials in Europe shows that PSA-based screening can reduce deaths from prostate cancer, but also leads to overdiagnosis and the risk of overtreatment among elderly men with a limited life expectancy.’

“Previous retrospective studies identified four kallikrein markers — free PSA, intact PSA, total PSA and human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 (hK2) — that can predict biopsy outcomes, according to study background.”