Nivolumab Superior to Dacarbazine for Untreated Metastatic Melanoma

The gist: A recent clinical trial with volunteer patients compared two treatments for metastatic melanoma. It showed that one of the treatments might give longer survival times for people whose tumors do not have mutations in the BRAF gene. This treatment is a drug called nivolumab. It is an immunotherapy drug, meaning that it boosts a patient’s own immune system to fight cancer. In the trial, some patients took nivolumab and some took the chemotherapy drug dacarbazine. People who took nivolumab lived a few months longer than people who took dacarbazine. None of the patients had taken any previous treatments for their melanoma.

“Patients with treatment-naive, BRAF wild-type metastatic melanoma treated with nivolumab demonstrated longer OS and PFS than those treated with dacarbazine, according to phase 3 study results presented at the Society for Melanoma Research International Congress.

“Prior research showed nivolumab (Opdivo, Bristol-Myers Squibb) — a PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor — was associated with higher rates of objective response compared with chemotherapy in patients with ipilimumab (Yervoy, Bristol-Myers Squibb)-refractory disease.

“In the current study, Caroline Robert, MD, PhD, head of the Dermatology Unit at the Institut Gustave-Roussy in Paris, and colleagues compared the efficacy of nivolumab vs. chemotherapy in 418 previously untreated patients.

“Researchers assigned patients 3 mg/kg nivolumab every 2 weeks plus a dacarbazine-matched placebo, or 1,000 mg/m2dacarbazine every 3 weeks plus a nivolumab-matched placebo.”