Study Identifies Novel Genomic Changes in the Most Common Type of Lung Cancer; TCGA Finds Mutations in a Key Cancer-Causing Pathway, Expanding Targets for Existing Drugs

Editor’s note: Cancer is caused by genetic mutations that lead to excess cell growth and tumor formation. Scientists have identified many specific cancer-causing mutations, and drugs have been developed to target and treat tumors with some of these specific mutations. Researchers recently found mutations in lung adenocarcinoma tumors that they had not seen in that type of cancer before. The discovery could eventually lead to new treatment options for some patients who have these mutations.

“Researchers from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have identified novel mutations in a well-known cancer-causing pathway in lung adenocarcinoma, the most common subtype of lung cancer. Knowledge of these genomic changes may expand the number of possible therapeutic targets for this disease and potentially identify a greater number of patients with treatable mutations because many potent cancer drugs that target these mutations already exist.

“TCGA is jointly funded and managed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), both part of the National Institutes of Health. A TCGA analysis of another, less common, form of lung cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, was reported in 2012.

“In this new study, published online July 9, 2014, in the journal Nature, researchers examined the genomes, RNA, and some protein from 230 lung adenocarcinoma samples. In three-quarters of the samples, the scientists ultimately identified mutations that put a cell signaling pathway known as the RTK/RAS/RAF pathway into overdrive.”