Adjuvant Temozolomide in 1p/19q Non-Codeleted Anaplastic Glioma

Excerpt:

“Interim results of the phase III CATNON trial (EORTC study 26053-22054) indicate a survival benefit of adjuvant temozolomide in 1p/19q non-codeleted anaplastic glioma. These findings were reported in The Lancet by van den Bent et al.

“In the open-label 2 x 2 factorial trial, 745 adult patients with newly diagnosed disease were randomized 1:1:1:1 between December 2007 and September 2015 to receive radiotherapy (59.4 Gy in 33 fractions of 1.8 Gy) alone (n = 187) or with (n = 185) adjuvant temozolomide (12 4-week cycles of 150–200 mg/m² given on days 1–5) or to receive radiotherapy with concurrent temozolomide at 75 mg/m²/d with (n = 188) or without (n = 185) adjuvant temozolomide.”

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Panel Backs Bone Drugs for Postmenopausal Breast Cancer

Excerpt:

“Appropriately selected postmenopausal women with breast cancer warrant consideration for adjuvant bisphosphonate therapy, according to an updated clinical guideline.

“Either zoledronic acid (Zometa) or clodronate may be considered for adjuvant therapy, as data supporting use of other bisphosphonates remain limited. The RANK ligand-targeted monoclonal antibody denosumab (Xgeva) did not make the cut as recommended therapy because of a lack of long-term survival data to support its use.

” ‘Data for adjuvant denosumab look promising but are currently insufficient to make any recommendation,’ concluded a panel of experts representing the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and Cancer Care Ontario.”

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The Case for Bone-Directed Adjuvant Therapy in Postmenopausal Early Breast Cancer

Excerpt:

“A duration of endocrine therapy beyond 5 years has gained traction in the treatment of endocrine receptor (ER)-positive early-stage breast cancer. Long-term use of aromatase inhibitors (AIs), however, may increase the risk of bone loss and bone fracture. Data suggest that the use of bone-targeted agents can substantially reduce the risk of osteoporotic complications associated with AI use, and even reduce the risk of bone recurrence in postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer.”

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Targeted Therapy Can Delay Recurrence of Intermediate-Stage Lung Cancer

Excerpt:

“The targeted therapy gefitinib appears more effective in preventing recurrence after lung cancer surgery than the standard of care, chemotherapy. In a phase III clinical trial, patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive, stage II-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received gefitinib went about 10 months longer without recurrence than patients who received chemotherapy. The study will be presented at the upcoming 2017 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago.

” ‘Adjuvant gefitinib may ultimately be considered as an important option for stage II-IIIA lung cancer patients with an active EGFR mutation, and we may consider routine EGFR testing in this earlier stage of lung cancer,’ said lead study author Yi-Long Wu, MD, a director of the Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, China. ‘We intend to follow these patients until we can fully measure overall survival as opposed to disease-free survival, which just measures disease recurrence.’ ”

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Tailored, Dense-Dose Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer Does Not Result in Significant Improvement

Excerpt:

“Among women with high-risk early breast cancer, the use of tailored dose-dense chemotherapy compared with standard adjuvant chemotherapy did not result in a statistically significant improvement in breast cancer recurrence-free survival, and nonhematologic toxic effects were more frequent in the tailored dose-dense group, according to a study appearing in the November 8 issue of JAMA.

“Dose-dense therapy, defined as delivery of chemotherapy at shorter intervals without increasing the cumulative dose, has been suggested as a means to improve efficacy of chemotherapy for early . Dosing of most is calculated based on body surface area, which leads to large interpatient variability in toxic effects and efficacy. Whether tailored dosing can improve outcomes is unknown, as is the role of dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy.”

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Adjuvant Ipilimumab Improves Survival in High-Risk Melanoma

Excerpt:

“Patients with stage III melanoma who were considered to be at high risk for recurrence derived an overall survival benefit from adjuvant treatment with ipilimumab (Yervoy), although it came at the price of considerable toxicity, according to updated survival results from the phase III European Organisation for Research and Treatment (EORTC) 18071 trial. The results were presented at the 2016 European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress by Alexander Eggermont, MD, Director General of the Institut Gustave Roussy in Villejuif, France, and simultaneously published in The New England Journal of Medicine.

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Prolonged Survival With Adjuvant Ipilimumab in Stage 3 Melanoma

Excerpt:

“Patients with completely resected stage 3 melanoma who received adjuvant treatment with ipilimumab (Yervoy, Bristol-Myers Squibb) lived longer than those who received placebo, show the latest results from the CA184-029 (EORTC 18071) study.

“This is the first time such a clear survival benefit has been seen with adjuvant therapy in the patient population, commented lead researcher Alexander M.M. Eggermont, MD, PhD, director general, Cancer Institute Gustave Roussy in Villejuif, France, noting that previous trials with adjuvant interferon have suggested a survival benefit, but only in some subgroups of patients.”

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FDA Accepts Neratinib NDA for HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

Excerpt:

“The FDA has accepted a new drug application (NDA) for neratinib as an extended adjuvant therapy for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer following prior treatment with postoperative trastuzumab (Herceptin), according to a statement from the developer of the TKI, Puma Biotechnology.

“The application included findings from the phase III ExteNET study, in which neratinib demonstrated a 2-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate of 93.9% compared with 91.6% in the placebo arm, according to findings published in Lancet Oncology. The FDA completes a standard review within 12 months from the time of submission, which was completed for neratinib on July 21, 2016.”

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Melanoma: New Drugs and New Challenges (Part 2 of 2)


Editor’s note: This is part 2 of a 2-part post on the latest research in melanoma. To learn about research into drug combinations for melanoma that may work better than single drugs, check out Melanoma: New Drugs and New Challenges (Part 1 of 2).

As always, the more new treatments become available in melanoma, the more new challenges arise. With eight new drugs approved for melanoma in the last five years, oncologists may sometimes face the difficult choice of what drugs to choose for a patient’s first-line treatment. Immune checkpoint drugs sometimes cause serious side effects, but progress is being made on how to treat these and also how to treat patients with pre-existing autoimmune conditions. New approaches are needed in efforts to prevent recurrence of melanomas diagnosed at earlier stages of disease progression. These and other challenges are discussed below. Continue reading…