“A pair of drugs already on the market appear to reduce the recurrence of breast cancer in women who’ve already undergone treatment, two new clinical trials show.
“The chemotherapy drug capecitabine (Xeloda) seems to reduce by nearly a third the risk of breast cancer recurrence if women receive the drug following surgery to remove their cancer, researchers were to report Wednesday at the 2015 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.
“In addition, an osteoporosis medication called denosumab appears to reduce recurrence risk by 18 percent in women who have HR-positive breast cancer, a second study reports.”
“Premenopausal women whose invasive breast cancers were of the luminal A subtype had comparable 10-year disease-free survival rates regardless of whether or not they received adjuvant chemotherapy, according to data from the phase III DBCG77B clinical trial presented at the 2015 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, held Dec. 8-12.
” ‘Luminal A is a relatively common subtype of breast cancer, and is defined by high expression of hormone receptors [estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR)], and low expression of the cell-growth marker Ki67 and the oncoprotein HER2. It is the form of breast cancer with the best prognosis,’ said Torsten Nielsen, MD, PhD, professor of pathology at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada.
” ‘We wanted to address the clinical question of whether or not women with molecularly low-risk luminal A breast cancer actually benefit from chemotherapy,’ added Nielsen. ‘Instead of starting a new trial and waiting for 10 years to find answers, we used an older, completed trial that had saved tissue samples for future studies.’ “
Women diagnosed with localized breast cancer face difficult decisions with their doctors. What kind of neoadjuvant (before surgery) treatment to choose? Should chemotherapy follow surgery? Based on the subtype of breast cancer, should specific chemotherapy drugs be used? Continue reading…
“Bristol-Myers Squibb CompanyBMY, -0.27% today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Yervoy (ipilimumab) 10 mg/kg for the adjuvant treatment of patients with cutaneous melanoma with pathologic involvement of regional lymph nodes of more than 1 mm who have undergone complete resection including total lymphadenectomy. This approval is based on clinical data from a pivotal Phase 3 trial, CA184-029 (EORTC 18071), which demonstrated Yervoy 10 mg/kg significantly improved recurrence-free survival (RFS) vs. placebo in this setting, with a 25 percent reduction in the risk of recurrence or death. The median RFS was 26 months (95% ci:19)(95% ci:39) for Yervoy vs. 17 months (95% ci:13)(95% ci:22) for placebo (hazard ratio [HR]=0.75; 95% CI: 0.64, 0.90; p<0.002). Yervoy is the first and only FDA-approved immune checkpoint inhibitor in the adjuvant treatment for fully resected Stage III melanoma (lymph node >1 mm).”
“Sequential anthracycline-cyclophosphamide and taxane may serve as the best available adjuvant therapy regimen for early-stage breast cancer regardless of hormone receptor status, according to the results of a systemic review and network meta-analysis.
“Many different adjuvant chemotherapy regimens exist for early-stage breast cancer; however, a conventional meta-analysis would not allow for comparison of all of these regimens, according to researchers.
“ ‘It is well established that adjuvant chemotherapy plays an important role in reducing the risk for recurrence and improving the survival of patients with breast cancer,’ Naoto T. Ueno, MD, PhD, chief of the section of translational breast cancer research at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and colleagues wrote. ‘The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for the treatment of breast cancer describe numerous recommended adjuvant chemotherapy regimens … of them, sequential anthracycline-cyclophosphamide and taxane (AC-T) is the most commonly accepted standard regimen. However, two types of regimens without anthracyclines may have efficacy similar to or greater than that of sequential AC-T.’ “
“A prospective study of guideline-based, postoperative, image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy in patients with prostate cancer found low toxicity profiles and favorable patient-reported quality of life following treatment, with researchers concluding that toxicity and health-related quality of life should not impact the recommendation of radiation therapy following prostatectomy. The research was published by Berlin et al in Practical Radiation Oncology.
“Postprostatectomy radiation therapy has been reported as underutilized, with randomized trials showing the benefit of adjuvant radiation therapy, but only about 10% of patients receiving the treatment. One potential reason for underutilization could be concern over side effects or a negative impact on health-related quality of life.”
“When bevacizumab (Avastin) was added to adjuvant chemotherapy, overall survival (OS) did not improve in patients with surgically resected early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to findings of the phase III E1505 trial presented during a press conference at the 2015 World Conference on Lung Cancer.
“The phase III trial randomized 1501 patients with NSCLC in a 1:1 ratio to chemotherapy with bevacizumab (n = 752) or without (n = 749). Data revealed that OS did not differ between the two arms (hazard ratio [HR], 0.99; 95% CI, 0.81-1.21; P = .93); median OS was more than 72 months in both cohorts. Similar data was reported with disease-free survival, a secondary endpoint, between the two arms (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.84-1.14; P = .75).”
“A recently opened double- blind phase III EORTC trial 1325 will prospectively assess whether post-operative adjuvant therapy with pembrolizumab, an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody, improves recurrence-free survival as compared to placebo in patients with high-risk stage III melanoma.
“A unique feature of the study is that in case of relapse all patients will have guaranteed access to pembrolizumab. This allows the study to assess a second question: is there a difference in benefit between early or late access to pembrolizumab.”
“Incidence of cardiac toxicity appeared low among patients with early HER-2–positive breast cancer who received adjuvant treatment with trastuzumab, according to results of the randomized phase 3 PHARE trial.
“Most cardiac events appeared reversible after discontinuation of trastuzumab (Herceptin, Genentech), researchers wrote.
“The French National Cancer Institute sponsored the PHARE trial, which included 3,380 patients with early HER-2–positive breast cancer randomly assigned 1:1 to the standard 12-month trastuzumab regimen or a 6-month regimen.”