DNA Mutations Shed in Blood Predicts Response to Immunotherapy in Patients With Cancer

Excerpt:

“In a first-of-its-kind study, University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers report that a blood sample, or liquid biopsy, can reveal which patients will respond to checkpoint inhibitor-based immunotherapies.

” ‘We can help predict response to immunotherapy by measuring the number of mutations in circulating tumor DNA using a simple blood test,’ said Yulian Khagi, MD, UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center fellow and first author. ‘Immunotherapy can result in serious side effects, and therefore being able to predict who will respond is important to mitigating potential risk to each patient.’ ”

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Blood-Based Assays Are Addition, But Not Replacement for Lung Tissue Biopsies

Excerpt:

“The boom of blood-based biomarkers has led to a turning point in clinical practice for physicians treating patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While tissue biopsies remain the standard approach, plasma assays—if positive—can direct patients to a first-line targeted treatment quicker.

” ‘Blood-based testing does have a role in patients with NSCLC,’ said Leora Horn, MD, MSc. ‘The blood can be potentially used as a surrogate for markers for directing for therapy. But if blood testing is negative, it is not enough to say that a patient is not positive. Those patients do need to go on to get a biopsy.’ ”

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New Blood Test Is More Accurate in Predicting Prostate Cancer Risk Than PSA

Excerpt:

“A team of researchers from Cleveland Clinic, Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, and other clinical sites have demonstrated that a new blood test known as IsoPSA detects prostate cancer more precisely than current tests in two crucial measures — distinguishing cancer from benign conditions, and identifying patients with high-risk disease.

“By identifying molecular changes in the prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein, the findings, published online last month by European Urology, suggest that once validated, use of IsoPSA may substantially reduce the need for biopsy, and may thus lower the likelihood of overdetection and overtreatment of nonlethal prostate cancer.”

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Biomarker Blood Test Shows Cancer Recurrence Months Before CT Scans

Excerpt:

“Results from a prospective clinical trial showed that a blood test looking at specific biomarkers was able to detect recurrences of lung cancer an average of six months before conventional imaging methods found evidence of recurrence. In the largest prospective clinical trial to date of circulating tumor cells (CTC) as biomarkers for locally advanced lung cancer, the findings indicate that blood tests potentially can be used in conjunction with CT and PET/CT scans to guide personalized treatment planning for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The study will be presented today at the 2017 Multidisciplinary Thoracic Cancers Symposium.”

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New Prostate Cancer Tests Aim to Reduce the Death Rate

Excerpt:

“About a dozen new medical tests are coming to market that aim to more accurately diagnose prostate cancer and go well beyond the standard PSA (prostate-specific antigen) blood screenings used today. Several of them may even allow men to forego getting a biopsy that more than 1 million men diagnosed with prostate cancer undergo each year. That’s because these new tests will help doctors distinguish between aggressive disease and slow-growing tumors.”

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Case for Liquid Biopsies Builds in Advanced Lung Cancer

Excerpt:

“For patients with advanced lung cancer, a non-invasive liquid biopsy may be a more effective and suitable alternative to the gold standard tissue biopsy to detect clinically relevant mutations and help guide their course of treatment, suggests a new study published this week in the journal Clinical Cancer Research from researchers at the Abramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania(ACC).

“In patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated at Penn’s ACC, mutations detected from liquid biopsies (cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) captured from blood) closely paralleled the mutations from tissue biopsies identified in next generation sequencing tests: EGRF, TP53, and ALK, to name a few. What’s more, in several cases, liquid biopsies captured clinically relevant mutations not found in tissue biopsies as patients’ disease progressed.”

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Breast Cancer Blood Test Now Accessible Under Health Benefits for Millions of Women in the U.S.

Excerpt:

“Provista Diagnostics, a private company developing and commercializing protein-based diagnostic, prognostic and monitoring tests for cancers affecting women, today announced the signing of 13 agreements with Third Party Administrator (TPA) Networks for coverage of Videssa® Breast.

“Videssa Breast is the first protein-based blood test that can improve the accuracy of early breast cancer detection. These agreements with TPA Networks will expand patient access to Videssa Breast at a reduced cost and ensure optimal reimbursement for the test. TPA Networks are organizations that process insurance claims and specific aspects of employee benefit plans. In addition, they are networks of providers who are contracted to provide healthcare services to plan members.”

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Test Aids Prostate Cancer Treatment

Excerpt:

“Genomic Health Inc. has struck a deal to commercialize a new blood test that can help advanced prostate cancer patients decide whether to try costly new-generation drugs or rely on much cheaper traditional chemotherapy to improve their chances for survival.

“The test, developed by closely held Epic Sciences Inc., San Diego, detects a mutation associated with a poor response to two new drugs, Xtandi from Medivation Inc. and Astellas Pharma Inc. of Japan, and Zytiga from Johnson & Johnson.

“The two blockbuster drugs have significantly extended survival for many patients with advanced prostate cancer. But in a study published last month, patients who tested positive for the anomaly—a variant of the androgen receptor called AR-V7—lived substantially longer if they were treated with chemotherapy than those given the two new drugs. The receptor is the target of the new drugs.”

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Can Liquid Biopsies and Tumor Biomarkers Personalize Prostate Cancer Treatment?

Excerpt:

“Experimental, minimally invasive ‘liquid biopsy’ blood tests might soon help to personalize prostate cancer treatment by predicting androgen resistance and survival benefits from particular treatments, researchers announced at the 2016 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, held June 3–7 in Chicago.

“Liquid biopsies detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) or bits of tumor DNA (ctDNA). Not all tumors shed cells or DNA into a patient’s bloodstreams, but most do. And when they do, they can reveal a lot about themselves—including molecular signatures that can be targeted with specific treatments.

“Recent years have seen an explosion of candidate biomarkers for prostate cancer and other malignancies, including both liquid biopsies and tumor-sample gene panels. Most candidate biomarkers have been prognostic gene-mutation signatures that can estimate patient survival regardless of what treatment strategies are attempted. These prognostic tests can be useful for risk-stratifying patients who are participating in clinical studies, or in communicating prognosis to a patient and his loved ones.”

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