“Determining the next step for a patient with melanoma who has failed or is not a candidate for existing targeted therapies or immunotherapies can be a challenge.
“However, there is hope, says Omid Hamid, MD, chief of Translational Research and Immunotherapy, and director of Melanoma Therapeutics at The Angeles Clinic.
“ ‘There are times when you throw your hands in the air and say, “I’ve run out of options,” ‘ he says. ‘But, all you need to do is look in another direction, open another cabinet, and realize that there are a ton of new options for our patients. These are nontraditional agents that maybe would not come to mind, but can be very effective in first-line, second-line, or any line.’
“Currently, several new checkpoint inhibitors and costimulatory molecules are being explored. These include those that target glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR)—which is expressed on CD4- and CD8-positive T cells—in addition to T-regulatory cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells.”