PARP Inhibitor Talazoparib Benefit in BCRA+ Breast Cancer

Excerpt:

“The now-published results from the EMBRACA study confirm that  talazoparib (Pfizer), a poly-adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor,  prolongs progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with advanced BCRA-positive breast cancer compared with single-agent chemotherapy alone, and that it also significantly improves quality of life.

” ‘This is the largest randomized trial in BRCA mutation carriers [ever undertaken] and demonstrates PARP efficacy,’ Jennifer Litton, MD, associate professor in the Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, told Medscape Medical News in an email.”

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Bevacizumab and Temozolomide in First Recurrence of Glioma Without 1p/19q Codeletion

Excerpt:

“In a phase II trial funded by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer and reported in The Lancet Oncology, van den Bent et al found no evidence of a survival benefit with the addition of bevacizumab (Avastin) to temozolomide in patients with a first recurrence of World Health Organization grade II or III glioma without the 1p/19q codeletion.

“In the open-label trial, conducted at 32 European centers, 155 patients were randomized between February 2011 and July 2015 to receive either temozolomide at 150 to 200 mg/m² on days 1 to 5 every 4 weeks for a maximum of 12 cycles (n = 77) or the same temozolomide regimen plus bevacizumab at 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks until disease progression (n = 78). Previous chemotherapy must have been stopped at least 6 months before enrollment, and radiotherapy, at least 3 months before enrollment. Overall, 44% of patients in the combination group and 47% in the temozolomide group had grade III disease.”

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CNS Activity of EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor in T790M-Positive Advanced NSCLC

Excerpt:

“In a planned subgroup analysis of the phase III AURA3 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Wu et al found that the third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor osimertinib (Tagrisso) produced higher central nervous system (CNS) response rates vs platinum plus pemetrexed (Alimta) in patients with advanced EGFR T790M-positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

“In AURA3, 419 patients with disease progression on prior EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment were randomized 2:1 to receive osimertinib at 80 mg once daily or platinum plus pemetrexed. The current subgroup analysis was conducted in patients with measurable or nonmeasurable CNS lesions on baseline brain scan by blinded independent central neuroradiologic review.”

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Combo Tx No Help After PSA Progression in mCRPC

Excerpt:

“Adding abiraterone acetate (Zytiga) to enzalutamide (Xtandi) did not improve progression-free survival (PFS) after prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression in men on enzalutamide monotherapy for chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), researchers found.

“In the randomized, double-blind PLATO trial, the median PFS in patients treated with enzalutamide plus abiraterone and prednisone was 5.7 months. By comparison, the PFS was 5.6 months in the control group treated with abiraterone and prednisone plus placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0.83; P=0.22).”

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Atezolizumab Plus Chemotherapy Improves PFS for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Excerpt:

“First-line atezolizumab plus nab-paclitaxel improved PFS compared with placebo among patients with metastatic or unresectable locally advanced triple-negative breast cancer, according to interim results from the IMpassion130 trial released by the manufacturer.

“Researchers observed prolonged PFS in both the intention-to-treat population and the PD-L1-positive population.”

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High Marks for HIFU in Early Prostate Cancer

Excerpt:

“Men with newly diagnosed, nonmetastatic prostate cancer had a 5-year failure-free survival (FFS) of 88% when treated with focal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, results of a multicenter European clinical experience showed.

“The 625-patient cohort had a 5-year overall survival of 99%, and none of the patients died of prostate cancer during a median follow-up of 56 months. In a subgroup of men who submitted questionnaires on patient-reported outcomes, 98% said they did not require absorbent pads for urinary incontinence.”

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New Treatment Lowers Risk for Death from Aggressive Prostate Cancer by Over 70 Percent, Study Finds

Excerpt:

“Some of the 165,000 U.S. men who are estimated to receive a new diagnosis of prostate cancer this year will develop resistance to hormonal therapies for the disease, but a new study by a doctor now at Northwestern Memorial Hospital points to use of an existing drug to help treat them.

“This kind of aggressive cancer has challenged doctors, as effective treatment to improve outcomes for these men hadn’t existed previously. But a clinical trial led by Dr. Maha Hussain, now an oncologist at Northwestern Memorial, showed that taking a drug, enzalutamide, resulted in a 71 percent lower risk of cancer spread or death, compared to those taking a placebo during the three-year trial. The patients involved all had prostate cancer that hadn’t spread but that also had not responded to hormone treatment.”

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Long-Term Results of Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy in Premenopausal Breast Cancer

Excerpt:

“In an analysis of long-term outcomes in the SOFT and TEXT trials reported at the 2018 ASCO Annual Meeting and in The New England Journal of Medicine, Francis et al found that the addition of ovarian suppression to adjuvant tamoxifen significantly improved 8-year rates of disease-free and overall survival vs tamoxifen alone among premenopausal women with breast cancer; risk of recurrence was further reduced with exemestane plus ovarian suppression.

“Initial reports showed that 5-year rates of recurrence were significantly lower among premenopausal women who received the aromatase inhibitor exemestane plus ovarian suppression vs tamoxifen plus ovarian suppression, with the addition of ovarian suppression to tamoxifen not significantly improving recurrence risk vs tamoxifen alone.”

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Selective AXL Inhibitor Bemcentinib Meets Pre-specified Efficacy Endpoint in Stage 1 of NSCLC Phase II Combination Trial With KEYTRUDA

Excerpt:

“BerGenBio ASA (OSE:BGBIO) announces today that on a top-line, preliminary basis, the first efficacy endpoint has been met in its Phase II clinical trial (BGBC008) evaluating bemcentinib, a first-in-class oral selective AXL inhibitor, in combination with the Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, N.J., USA[1] anti-PD-1 therapy KEYTRUDA® (pembrolizumab) as a potential new treatment regimen for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The primary efficacy endpoint requires at least four patients (out of the first 22 treated patients) to achieve clinical responses when treated with the novel drug combination, defined as either complete or partial response, as measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST).”

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