“The presence or absence of mutations in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) should guide selection of first-line systemic therapy, according to an updated clinical guideline from the American Society of Clinical Oncology.
“Patients with squamous-cell tumors that have no gene alterations should begin treatment with combination platinum-based cytotoxic chemotherapy, so long as they have good performance status (0 or 1). Optionally, bevacizumab (Avastin) may be added when the platinum agent is carboplatin. For patients with performance status 2, either chemotherapy or palliative care alone is an acceptable option.
“In the presence of sensitizing EGFR mutations, appropriate first-line therapy is afatinib (Gilotrif), erlotinib (Tarceva), or gefitinib (Iressa). Treatment should begin with crizotinib (Xalkori) when patients have tumors with ALK or ROS1 rearrangements, as published online in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.”
“The ALK and RET inhibitor alectinib yielded good response rates and was very well tolerated in a phase II trial of patients with advanced, ALK-positive non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC; abstract 8008). Results were presented at the 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, held May 29 to June 2, in Chicago.
“Crizotinib is currently the standard-of-care for advanced, treatment-naive ALK-positive NSCLC. ‘However, the median progression-free survival (PFS) for these patients on crizotinib is under 12 months,’ said Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou, MD, PhD, of the UC Irvine Medical Center in California. ‘This is in part due to development of ALK mutations that are resistant to crizotinib.’
“Alectinib is a next-generation inhibitor that is highly selective for ALK and RET; as an ALK inhibitor, Ou said, it is approximately five times as potent as crizotinib. It can inhibit the majority of clinically relevant acquired ALK mutations.”
“Phase I/II clinical trial results reported at the American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting 2015 show promising results for investigational drug brigatinib against ALK+ non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with 58 of 78 ALK+ patients responding to treatment, including 50 of 70 patients who had progressed after previous treatment with crizotinib, the first licensed ALK inhibitor. Progression-free survival (PFS) in patients previously treated with crizotinib was 13.4 months.
” ‘Although still only in an early phase trial, brigatinib is showing an objective response rate in approximately 70 percent of ALK-positive patients post-crizotinib and it’s showing about a year of progression-free survival. These results are among the best in the field, offering a lot of hope to people with ALK-positive lung cancer,’ says D. Ross Camidge, MD, PhD, director of thoracic oncology at the University of Colorado Cancer Center and the trial’s principal investigator.”
“Roche (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY) today announced positive results from two pivotal studies (NP28673 and NP28761) that showed alectinib, its oral investigational anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor (ALKi), shrank tumours (overall response rate; ORR: 50% and 47.8%, respectively) in people with advanced ALK-positive (ALK+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose disease had progressed following treatment with crizotinib. In addition, alectinib was shown to shrink tumours in people whose cancer had spread to the central nervous system (CNS) (CNS ORR: 57.1% and 68.8%, respectively). Additionally, people whose tumours shrank in response to alectinib continued to respond for a median of 11.2 and 7.5 months, respectively (duration of response; DOR). Alectinib demonstrated a safety profile consistent with that observed in previous studies. The most common adverse events (Grade 3 or higher occurring in at least 2% of people) were an increase in muscle enzymes (increased blood levels of creatine phosphokinase), increased liver enzymes and shortness of breath (dyspnea).1,2
“ ‘Cancer spreads to the brain in about half of people with ALK-positive lung cancer, and these studies suggest that alectinib can shrink tumours in people with this difficult-to-treat disease,’ said Sandra Horning, MD, Chief Medical Officer and Head of Global Product Development. ‘We plan to submit these data to the FDA this year to support alectinib as a potential new option for people whose advanced ALK-positive lung cancer progressed on crizotinib.’ “
“An experimental Pfizer Inc drug that aims to help lung cancer patients with specific genetic mutations who have stopped responding to the company’s Xalkori was showing promise in a small, early stage study, according to preliminary data revealed on Wednesday.
“The ongoing Phase I trial of the drug, PF-3922, was designed to determine if there is a maximum tolerable dose and which dose or doses to test in future larger trials.
“But researchers found some early evidence of efficacy, according to a brief summary of the study that will be presented at the upcoming American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)meeting in Chicago later this month.
“Of 15 patients evaluated for efficacy, six, or 40 percent, had partial responses, meaning tumor shrinkage of at least 30 percent. Intracranial responses were observed in five patients, indicating that the drug had successfully crossed the blood/brain barrier to attack tumors in the brain, which are common in advanced, or metastatic, lung cancer.
” ‘There’s encouraging clinical activity despite that it’s an early study,’ said Ronit Simantov, head of medical affairs for Pfizer oncology.”
“Pfizer Inc. announced today that XALKORI® (crizotinib) received Breakthrough Therapy designation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the potential treatment of patients with ROS1-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Occurring in approximately one percent of NSCLC cases1, ROS1-positive NSCLC represents a particular molecular subgroup of NSCLC.2 XALKORI currently is approved in the U.S. for the treatment of patients with metastatic NSCLC whose tumors are anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive as detected by an FDA-approved test.
“Enacted as part of the 2012 FDA Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA), Breakthrough Therapy designation is intended to expedite the development and review of a potential new medicine if it is “intended to treat a serious or life-threatening disease and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies.”3The Breakthrough Therapy designation is distinct from the FDA’s other mechanisms to expedite drug development and review.4
“ ‘We are excited that the FDA has granted Breakthrough Therapy designation for XALKORI as a potential treatment for patients with ROS1-positive NSCLC,’ said Dr. Mace Rothenberg, senior vice president of Clinical Development and Medical Affairs and chief medical officer for Pfizer Oncology. ‘XALKORI pioneered precision medicine for ALK-positive metastatic NSCLC, and ROS1 represents a second molecular subgroup of NSCLC in which XALKORI has demonstrated a level of anti-tumor activity that can potentially make a real difference for patients.’ ”
“In a retrospective study in the European EUROS1 cohort reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Mazières found that crizotinib (Xalkori) treatment was associated with an 80% response rate in patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma with ROS1 rearrangement.
“The study involved 31 patients who received crizotinib therapy through individual off-label use. Patients had a median age of 50.5 years, 64.5% were women, and 67.7% were never-smokers. Patients had received zero (n = 1), one (n = 9), two (n = 5), three (n = 3), or more than three (n = 13) lines of chemotherapy before crizotinib.
“Among 30 patients evaluated for response, 24 (80.0%) had objective response, including complete response in 5; 2 had stable disease (disease control rate of 86.7%); and 4 had disease progression. Median progression-free survival was 9.1 months, and 12-month progression-free survival was 44%. No unexpected adverse effects were observed…
“The investigators concluded: ‘Crizotinib was highly active at treating lung cancer in patients with a ROS1 rearrangement, suggesting that patients with lung adenocarcinomas should be tested for ROS1. Prospective clinical trials with crizotinib and other ROS1 inhibitors are ongoing or planned.’ ”
“Novartis announced today that the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency adopted a positive opinion for Zykadia® (ceritinib) to treat adult patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with crizotinib. If approved in the European Union (EU), Zykadia will be the first treatment option to address an unmet medical need for patients with ALK+ NSCLC previously treated with crizotinib.
” ‘Patients with advanced ALK+ NSCLC have few options when their cancer does not respond to currently approved therapy,’ said Alessandro Riva, MD, Global Head, Novartis Oncology Development and Medical Affairs. ‘As a leader in the development of precision oncology medicines, Novartis is committed to developing and bringing to market new treatments for patients with ALK+ NSCLC. This positive CHMP opinion for Zykadia brings us one step closer to providing the lung cancer community with new hope in the fight against this terrible disease.’
“Each year, there are 1.6 million people diagnosed with lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The most common type of lung cancer is NSCLC, accounting for 85-90% of all cases. Of those, 2-7% are driven by a rearrangement of the ALK gene, which increases the growth of cancer cells and can be identified by a molecular test of the cancer tumor. Despite significant treatment advances for patients with ALK+ NSCLC, disease progression is often inevitable and more treatment options are needed.”
The gist: A drug called crizotinib (Xalkori) has shown promise for some people with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that has metastasized to the brain. Xalkori is already used to treat NSCLC in patients whose tumors have a genetic abnormality known as “ALK rearrangement.” A recent study focused specifically on people whose NSCLC had spread to the brain. The researchers found that Xalkori may help patients whose brain metastases have not yet caused any symptoms.