Addition of Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy to Nivolumab Improves Lung Cancer Survival

Excerpt:

“The combination of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy plus anti-PD-1 therapy improved survival among patients with advanced lung cancer, according to a retrospective analysis presented at the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Multidisciplinary Symposium in Thoracic Oncology.

“Immune checkpoint inhibitors have improved outcomes in non-small cell lung cancer. However, the absolute improvement over docetaxel is only 3 to 5 months for median OS and 15% to 20% for overall response rate.”

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Benefits Vary With Docetaxel and Abiraterone in High-Risk Prostate Cancer

Excerpt:

“The first head-to-head comparison of docetaxel and abiraterone acetate for high-risk prostate cancer patients starting long-term hormone therapy found benefit with both treatments when added to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Treatment decisions may come down to specific toxicities, which differ between the treatments.

“The large STAMPEDE trial previously found that both docetaxel and abiraterone improved outcomes when compared with placebo. “Right now, oncologists and urologists want to know which combination is preferable, which is why we conducted this analysis,” said study author Matthew Sydes, MSc, a statistician at University College London.”

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ESMO 2017 Press Release: Patients with High Risk Prostate Cancer May Benefit “Equally” From Two New Treatments

Excerpt:

“Patients with high risk prostate cancer starting long-term hormone therapy may benefit from two new treatments, according to late-breaking results from the STAMPEDE trial presented at the ESMO 2017 Congress in Madrid.

“Long-term hormone therapy alone has been the standard of care for patients with high risk locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer since the 1940s.”

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Early Chemo Linked to Improved PFS in High-Volume Metastatic Prostate Cancer

Excerpt:

“Patients with high-volume, castration-naïve metastatic prostate cancer may have superior progression-free survival (PFS) outcomes when treated with early docetaxel, according to findings published online in the European Journal of Cancer.

“Using the Quality-adjusted Time Without Symptoms of disease and Toxicity of treatment (Q-TWiST) method, investigators also determined that the benefits associated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) plus docetaxel outweighed the risks associated with the treatment.”

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Prostate Cancer: Poor Responders Benefit from Taxane Switch

Excerpt:

“Men with advanced prostate cancer who respond poorly to one taxane-based chemotherapy regimen may benefit from switching to another, a small randomized trial reported.

“Nearly half of the men who did not achieve a ≥30% decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level while receiving either docetaxel or cabazitaxel achieved a ≥50% decline when they switched to the other drug, said Emmanuel Antonarakis, MBBCh, of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, and colleagues.”

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MEK Inhibitor Disappoints in KRAS-Mutant NSCLC

Excerpt:

“A targeted combination therapy for patients with KRAS-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) did not improve overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS), researchers reported.

“The phase III, randomized SELECT-1 trial compared the experimental MEK inhibitor selumetinib, in combination with docetaxel (Taxotere), with docetaxel and placebo as second-line therapy in patients who failed a previous line of therapy, explained Pasi Jänne, MD, PhD, of the Dana Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, and colleagues.

“After a follow-up of approximately 1 year, median OS in the selumetinib combination group was 8.7 months versus 7.9 months in the docetaxel plus placebo group (hazard ratio 1.05, 95% CI 0.85-1.30, P=0.64), they wrote in JAMA.

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Metformin Use Does Not Increase Prostate Cancer Survival

Excerpt:

“Metformin use in combination with docetaxel chemotherapy does not significantly improve survival in patients with diabetes and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, according to a study published in the April issue of The Journal of Urology.

“Michelle J. Mayer, from Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, and colleagues used data from several Ontario administrative health care databases to identify men (older than 65 years) diagnosed with metastatic castration-resistant cancer and treated with docetaxel. Patients were stratified into groups based on diabetes status and use of antidiabetic medications to assess the effect of use with docetaxel on survival.”

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Plinabulin Improves Survival in Subset of Patients With Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

Excerpt:

“The investigational small-molecule plinabulin yielded some interesting benefits when added to docetaxel in previously treated patients with stage III/IV non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), in a phase II study. Although the benefit of the doublet was modest in the overall study population, the study’s findings were striking in two ways: the duration of response was 7 times that achieved with docetaxel alone, and patients with measurable disease had a 4.6-month improvement in survival.”

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Pembrolizumab Long-Term Survival Rate Could Reach 25% in NSCLC

Excerpt:

“Treatment with pembrolizumab (Keytruda) could elicit long-term survival (LTS) rates of 21% to 25% for previously-treated patients with PD-L1–positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with 3% to 4% for docetaxel, according to a statistical analysis of findings from the KEYNOTE-010 and -001 trials presented at the 2017 ASCO-SITC Symposium.

“Findings from the analysis shed light on the number of patients with advanced NSCLC expected to benefit for up to 70 months from pembrolizumab. According to survival statistics from the SEER database for 2006 to 2012, the 5-year survival rate was 4.3% for those with lung or bronchus cancer with distant metastases.”

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