Proto-Oncogene Activity of Melanoma Antigen-A11 (MAGE-A11) Regulates Retinoblastoma-Related p107 and E2F1

“Melanoma antigen-A11 (MAGE-A11) is a low abundance primate-specific steroid receptor coregulator in normal tissues of the human reproductive tract that is expressed at higher levels in prostate cancer. Increased expression of MAGE-A11 enhances androgen receptor transcriptional activity and promotes prostate cancer cell growth. Further investigation into the mechanisms of MAGE-A11 function in prostate cancer demonstrated interactions with the retinoblastoma-related protein p107 and Rb tumor suppressor, but no interaction with p130 of the Rb family. MAGE-A11 interaction with p107 was associated with transcriptional repression in cells with low MAGE-A11 and transcriptional activation in cells with higher MAGE-A11. Selective interaction of MAGE-A11 with retinoblastoma family members suggested regulation of E2F transcription factors. MAGE-A11 stabilized p107 by inhibition of ubiquitination and linked p107 to hypophosphorylated E2F1 in association with the stabilization and activation of E2F1.”

An IKKα–E2F1–BMI1 Cascade Activated by Infiltrating B Cells Controls Prostate Regeneration and Tumor Recurrence

“Androgen-deprived prostate cancer (PCa) is infiltrated by B lymphocytes that produce cytokines that activate IκB kinase α (IKKα) to accelerate the emergence of castration-resistant tumors. We now demonstrate that infiltrating B lymphocytes and IKKα are also required for androgen-dependent expansion of epithelial progenitors responsible for prostate regeneration. In these cells and in PCa cells, IKKα phosphorylates transcription factor E2F1 on a site that promotes its nuclear translocation, association with the coactivator CBP, and recruitment to critical genomic targets that include Bmi1, a key regulator of normal and cancerous prostate stem cell renewal. The IKKα–BMI1 pathway is also activated in human PCa.”