“Older patients with melanoma may respond better to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy treatment than their younger counterparts, according to a recent study published in Clinical Cancer Research, a journal from the American Association for Cancer Research.
“Researchers collected melanoma tissue samples from 538 patients from the United States, Australia and Germany. The samples were then divided into two categories: those belonging to people over the age of 62 and those belonging to people younger than 62. All of the patients were treated with the immunotherapy agent, Keytruda (pembrolizumab), which targets and blocks PD-1, making the immune system more likely to identify and attack cancer cells.”
“Nearly two-thirds of older patients with stage III lung cancer do not receive any treatment, according to a new study.
“Although more than one-third of new lung cancers are diagnosed in patients age 75 years and older, elderly patients may not receive standard-of-care therapy for lung cancer—concurrent chemotherapy and radiation—due to their age, concerns about fragility, less willingness of patients to pursue aggressive therapy, or concerns over the usefulness of therapy for patients with competing risk factors.”
“Treating older patients who have malignant brain cancer with the chemotherapy drug temozolomide plus a short course of radiation therapy extends survival by two months compared to treating with radiation alone, show clinical trial results published in the New England Journal of Medicine.
“For 45% of the study participants, improved survival almost doubled — from 7 months to 13.5 months, says co-principal investigator Normand Laperriere, radiation oncologist at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network. This was linked to a molecular marker that indicated if a DNA repair mechanism against the drug was active. When the mechanism was ‘off,’ tumours responded better to treatment.”
“Patients aged 65 years and older are living longer after lung cancer surgery, and with older people representing a rapidly growing proportion of patients diagnosed with lung cancer, this improved survival is especially significant, according to an article posted online today by The Annals of Thoracic Surgery.
“The American Cancer Society estimates that the median age at diagnosis for lung cancer is 70, supporting the premise that lung cancer is predominantly a disease of the elderly. Despite this, older patients with cancer are generally under-represented in clinical cancer trials, including those for lung cancer. This makes the study by Felix G. Fernandez, MD, from the Emory Clinic in Atlanta, and colleagues particularly important.”
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“Older women with early-stage, invasive breast cancer had better survival rates than what was estimated by a popular online tool for predicting survival, according to researchers at the Duke Cancer Institute.
“The finding provides a stronger rationale for women over the age of 70 — even those who have additional minor health concerns — to undergo aggressive treatments such as chemotherapy to prevent their cancer from returning.
“ ‘When making decisions about whether or not to use potentially toxic preventive chemotherapy for breast cancer in older women, patients and doctors debate what they should do,’ said Gretchen Kimmick, M.D., M.S., an associate professor of medicine at Duke who is presenting the study findings at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. ‘This predictive model can help us show patients that they are going to survive long enough to see the benefit of treatment.’ “
“Alternative medicines are widely thought to be at least harmless and very often helpful for a wide range of discomforts and illnesses. However, although they’re marketed as ‘natural,’ they often contain active ingredients that can react chemically and biologically with other therapies. Researchers performed a comprehensive review of all of the medications taken by senior oncology patients and found that as 26 percent were using complementary or alternative medicines (CAM), in a report published August 12th, in the Journal of Geriatric Oncology.
“ ‘Currently, few oncologists are aware of the alternative medicines their patients take,’ said Ginah Nightingale, PharmD, an Assistant Professor in the Jefferson College of Pharmacy at Thomas Jefferson University. ‘Patients often fail to disclose the CAMs they take because they think they are safe, natural, nontoxic and not relevant to their cancer care, because they think their doctor will disapprove, or because the doctor doesn’t specifically ask.’ “
“In a position statement published online July 20 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, the American Society of Clinical Oncology has called on the U.S. government and the cancer research community to broaden clinical trials to include older adults.
” ‘Older people living with cancer often have different experiences and outcomes in their treatment than younger cancer patients,’ Julie Vose, M.D., M.B.A., society president, said in a news release from the group. ‘As we age, for example, the risk of adverse reactions from treatment significantly increases. Older adults must be involved in clinical trials so we can learn the best way to treat older cancer patients, resulting in improved outcomes and manageable toxicity,’ she explained.
“More than 60 percent of cancers in the United States occur in people aged 65 and older, the statement authors say, noting the number of seniors will increase in coming years. However, there is a lack of evidence about cancer treatments for the elderly because too few are included in clinical trials, and clinical trials designed specifically for seniors are rare.”
“The prevalence of polypharmacy, excessive polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medicine use was high among senior patients with cancers, according to results of a pharmacist-led comprehensive medication assessment.
“ ‘Older adults with cancer are particularly prone to medication errors attributed to medication changes, complex regimens and incomplete information handoff between providers,’ Ginah Nightingale, PharmD, BCOP, assistant professor in the department of pharmacy practice of the Jefferson School of Pharmacy at Thomas Jefferson University, and colleagues wrote. ‘Polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medication use warrant substantial interest and concern on behalf of medical oncologists and oncology health providers because of the perils associated with their use in this vulnerable population.’ “
“A retrospective study found that early-stage non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients over 70 years old derive a similar benefit as younger patients from adjuvant chemotherapy following surgical resection. This suggests that age should not preclude patients from receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.
“ ‘Studies conducted in the last decade have provided evidence that adjuvant chemotherapy after surgical resection improves outcomes for patients with resected stages II and IIIA disease and selected patients with stage I (large tumor size) NSCLC,’ wrote study authors led by Apar Kishor Ganti, MD, of the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha. These studies, however, have not focused specifically on elderly patients, and NSCLC has a median age of 70 years at diagnosis.
“The new study was a population-based retrospective review of 7,593 patients with stage IB to stage III NSCLC who underwent surgical resection; 2,897 (38%) were aged at least 70 years. Results of the study were published online ahead of print in Cancer.
“Among the younger patients, 31.6% received adjuvant chemotherapy, while only 15.3% of the older patients received this treatment (P .0001). Both groups saw changes in rates of adjuvant chemotherapy over time, though of different magnitudes: 9.3% of younger patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2003 received adjuvant chemotherapy, which rose by 27.8% by 2009 to 2011. In older patients, the rate was 4.5% in the earlier period and increased by 16.0%. The most common chemotherapy option used in all patients (64.6%) was carboplatin-based doublets.”