A retrospective study in Japan examined 55 patients aged 75 years or over with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had a mutation in the EGFR gene and received gefitinib (Iressa) as first-line therapy. The treatment was generally well tolerated and patients experienced longer periods without cancer progression (median: 13.8 months) and longer overall survival (median: 29.1 months) than commonly reported for similar patients. While studies using control groups will need to confirm that Iressa is indeed more effective than standard chemotherapy or a placebo, these findings suggest that Iressa may be a preferable first-line treatment in elderly patients with advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLC.
- first-line treatment
A study of individuals with and without lung cancer in North India found that those carrying a particular version (or “polymorphism”) of a gene for the protein p53 were more likely to have lung cancer, independent of their age or smoking rate. P53 belongs to a class of proteins called “tumor suppressor proteins,” and is involved in DNA repair, regulating cell growth, and inducing cell death in damaged or abnormal cells. The findings suggest that this version of the p53 gene, called Arg72Pro, may contribute to higher susceptibility for lung cancer, at least in the North Indian population.
Research paper: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/dna.2012.1792
A recent study examined first-line treatment with the chemotherapy agent carboplatin (Paraplatin), combined with either albumin-bound paclitaxel (Abraxane) or standard solvent-based paclitaxel (Taxol), in both elderly and younger patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients treated with Abraxane/Paraplatin exhibited higher treatment response rates and fewer toxic side effects in both age groups; elderly patients (age 70+ years) experienced longer periods without cancer progression and longer overall survival with Abraxane/Paraplatin compared to Taxol/Paraplatin treatment. Abraxane plus Paraplatin may constitute a safe, effective first-line treatment for elderly patients with advanced NSCLC, a group that has been traditionally undertreated.
Research paper: http://annonc.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/2/314.long
Variations in genes for a family of proteins called matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) have been suggested to play a role in lung cancer risk. A meta-analysis of several studies on MMP genes found that a particular version (or “polymorphism”) of the MMP1 gene, called MMP1-1607 1G/2G, is associated with higher susceptibility for lung cancer in Asian patients. In contrast, the MMP2-1306 C/T version of the MMP2 gene decreases lung cancer risk in Asian patients and the MMP9-1562 C/T version of the MMP9 gene decreases lung cancer risk in white patients.
National Jewish Health is performing a clinical trial to examine the benefits of lung cancer screening that combines a computed tomography (CT) chest scan with a blood test. The blood test detects anticancer antibodies created by the immune system. The trial seeks to find out whether adding the blood test, called EarlyCDT-Lung, will further improve the ability of CT chest scans to prevent lung cancer deaths in high-risk populations and avoid invasive follow-up testing in the case of CT scan “false alarms.” Participants can enroll if they are between ages 50 to 75 years, have a smoking history of at least 20 pack-years (meaning 1 pack a day for 20 years, or 2 packs a day for 10 years, etc.), are current smokers or quit fewer than 10 years ago, and have no serious illness or history of cancer other than skin cancer. Call 303-398-1911 to find out more.
Small, early-stage lung cancers can be removed using either wedge resection (removal of a small, wedge-shaped piece of lung that contains the cancer and a margin of healthy tissue around the cancer) or lobectomy (removal of the entire subsection, or lobe, of the lung that contains the cancer). A study of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that was less than 2 cm in diameter and had not spread to the lymph nodes (stage T1N0) showed that those who received lobectomy were more likely to remain cancer-free and had higher survival rates compared to those who received wedge resection. The study authors recommend lobectomy as the preferred treatment for small NSCLC tumors, with wedge resection reserved for patients whose lung function would be decreased too much by lobectomy.
While new treatments for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and Alimta (pemetrexed), are effective second-line treatments for patients whose tumors carry mutations in the EGFR gene, they are less effective for patients without such mutations. Twenty-six patients with inoperable, previously treated NSCLC received treatment with amrubicin (Calsed) and S-1 and experienced higher treatment response rates, longer periods without cancer progression, and longer overall survival than has been reported with single-agent chemotherapy. The beneficial effects were independent of cancer subtype, suggesting that combined Calsed and S-1 may be an effective second-line treatment for NSCLC without EGFR mutation.
The Lung Cancer Asbestos Victims Center has launched a national campaign emphasizing that patients diagnosed with any type of lung cancer, not just mesothelioma, may be eligible for significant financial compensation if they have been exposed to asbestos in the workplace, even if the exposure occurred decades ago. The advocacy group lists the types of workplaces with the highest risk of asbestos exposure on their website. Patients or their family members can contact the organization at 866-714-6466 to get more information and to be directed to an experienced law firm.
Cerulean Pharma Inc. is beginning a phase II clinical trial that will investigate the safety and effectiveness of a novel chemotherapy drug, CRLX101, in patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC) who have responded to first-line, platinum-based chemotherapy. The study will compare CRLX101 to topotecan (Hycamtin), which is currently the only approved second-line therapy for relapsed SCLC. CRLX101 is already being assessed as a treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in another phase II trial close to completion and may be safer than Hycamtin.