An IKKα–E2F1–BMI1 Cascade Activated by Infiltrating B Cells Controls Prostate Regeneration and Tumor Recurrence

“Androgen-deprived prostate cancer (PCa) is infiltrated by B lymphocytes that produce cytokines that activate IκB kinase α (IKKα) to accelerate the emergence of castration-resistant tumors. We now demonstrate that infiltrating B lymphocytes and IKKα are also required for androgen-dependent expansion of epithelial progenitors responsible for prostate regeneration. In these cells and in PCa cells, IKKα phosphorylates transcription factor E2F1 on a site that promotes its nuclear translocation, association with the coactivator CBP, and recruitment to critical genomic targets that include Bmi1, a key regulator of normal and cancerous prostate stem cell renewal. The IKKα–BMI1 pathway is also activated in human PCa.”