It has become routine practice to prescribe targeted drugs to patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), whose tumors harbor molecular alterations in EGFR, ALK, and ROS. However, the majority of patients with NSCLC have no targetable mutations and lack good treatment options. Enter immunotherapy drugs, specifically ‘immune checkpoint blockade antibodies,’ to which many refer simply as ‘anti-PD-1 drugs,’ or simply ‘PD-1 drugs.’ In this post, I provide some updates on the efficacy of anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 drugs in lung cancer. Continue reading…
The drugs pembrolizumab (Keytruda) and nivolumab (Opdivo) were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2014 and 2015, respectively. These two competing blockbuster drugs are already changing the outlook in metastatic melanoma, previously considered to be a fatal disease. Known as ‘immune checkpoint inhibitors,’ they work by releasing ‘brakes’ on a patient’s own immune system, freeing it to attack tumors. In the wake of their success, researchers are now taking immune checkpoint inhibition in new directions. Continue reading…
“Talimogene laherparepvec combined with ipilimumab demonstrated tolerability at the planned doses without dose-limiting toxicities in patients with unresected, stage IIIB to IV melanoma, according to study results presented at the HemOnc Today Melanoma and Cutaneous Malignancies meeting in New York.
“The combination also demonstrated higher overall and complete response rates than typical for either agent alone, results showed.
“Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC, Amgen) — a systemically active oncolytic immunotherapy derived from herpes simplex virus type 1 — yielded a higher durable response (≥ 6 months) than granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in a phase 3 melanoma trial, according to study background.
“Igor Puzanov, MD, MSCI, FACP, of the division of hematology-oncology at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, and colleagues sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of T-VEC in combination with ipilimumab (Yervoy, Bristol-Myers Squibb).”
“Combined treatment with the T-cell checkpoint pathway inhibitors nivolumab and ipilimumab produced significantly higher rates of response and progression-free survival among patients with advanced melanoma (regardless of BRAF mutation status) than did treatment with ipilimumab alone, according to the phase I results of a trial published in the New England Journal of Medicine and presented at the 2015 American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting.
“ ‘On the basis of the high degree of tumor reduction in the current study, with a high rate of complete responses, a favorable clinical benefit can be anticipated with longer follow-up,’ wrote study author F. Stephen Hodi, MD, of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and colleagues.
“The phase I dose-escalation study included 142 patients with treatment-naive metastatic melanoma. Patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to ipilimumab 3 mg/kg with nivolumab 1 mg/kg or placebo every 3 weeks for four doses, followed by nivolumab 3 mg/kg or placebo every 2 weeks.
“In patients with BRAF wild-type tumors, combined treatment resulted in an objective response rate of 61% compared with 11% in those assigned ipilimumab alone (P < .001). Complete responses occurred in 22% of patients assigned to the combined immunotherapy treatment and none of the patients assigned to monotherapy.”
“Results of an EORTC trial appearing in The Lancet Oncology show that adjuvant Ipilimumab significantly improves recurrence-free survival in patients with completely resected stage III melanoma at high risk of disease recurrence, but that this treatment was also associated with a high rate of immune-related adverse events.
“Prof Alexander M M Eggermont of the Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus and lead author of this study says, ‘Ipilimumab has already been approved as a treatment for patients with advanced melanoma. Our intention with this study was to assess Ipilimumab as an adjuvant treatment for patients with completely resected stage III melanoma at high risk of recurrence. In my experience, this marks both the first clinical trial of an approved drug with an effect on survival in advanced melanoma in the adjuvant setting, and, in this same setting, the first to study an immune checkpoint inhibitor in the adjuvant setting. Our results show that Ipilimumab is active in the adjuvant setting, but the side-effects are considerable.’
“Between 2008 and 2011, the double-blind, phase III EORTC trial 18071 accrued 951 patients who were randomly assigned to receive either Ipilimumab (475 patients) or placebo (476 patients). All patients were included in the intention-to-treat analyses. At a median follow-up of 2.74 years, the median recurrence-free survival was 26.1 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 19.3 – 39.3) in the Ipilimumab group and 17.1 months (95% CI 13.4 – 21.6) in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0.75; 95% CI 0.64 – 0.90; p = 0.0013). The 3-year recurrence-free survival rate was 46.5% (95% CI 41.5 – 51.3) in the Ipilimumab group and 34.8% (30.1 – 39.5) in the placebo group.”