Enzalutamide Shows Efficacy in Prostate Cancer With Visceral Mets

Excerpt:

“Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and visceral metastases (liver and lung) fare better with the androgen receptor inhibitor enzalutamide than placebo, according to a new analysis from the phase III AFFIRM trial. There were differences in response based on which of those two sites had metastases, suggesting they should be considered differently for treatment.

” ‘Visceral metastases are identified in approximately 22% to 30% of patients with mCRPC and are associated with unfavorable outcomes,’ wrote study authors led by Yohann Loriot, MD, PhD, of Université Paris-Saclay in Villejuif, France.”

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Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Lesser Threat than Adenocarcinomas, but Still Hard to Treat


Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) constitute only about 3% to 5% of all pancreatic cancers. Compared to the most common pancreatic cancer—adenocarcinoma (aka exocrine tumors), PNETs have a longer disease course and better prognosis; the 5-year survival rate is 42% for PNETs, but only about 5% to 6% for adenocarcinomas. When PNETs are localized, they can usually be removed by surgery. However, PNETs tend to metastasize, most often to the liver, and present a formidable treatment challenge at this stage. Continue reading…


PHP May Increase Survival in Patients with Liver Metastases

“Percutaneous hepatic perfusion increased hepatic progression free and overall survival rates in patients with liver metastases from melanoma vs. patients who underwent yttrium-90 therapy, according to data presented at the 2015 Society of Surgical Oncology Annual Cancer Symposium.

“Jonathan S. Zager, MD, FACS, director of regional therapies and chair of graduate medical education at Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa, and colleagues, including Andrea M. Abbott, MD, of surgical oncology at Moffitt Cancer Center, analyzed data of 30 patients with cutaneous or uveal melanoma that metastasized to the liver after treatment with percutaneous hepatic perfusion (PHP), yttrium-90 (Y90) or chemoembolization using melphalan hydrochloride for injection with the Delcath Hepatic Delivery System (Melphalan/HDS, Delcath Systems, Inc.). The Melphalan/HDS is a system designed to supply high-dose chemotherapy to the liver while controlling systemic exposure, according to the Delcath website.”


NKTR-102 Improves Survival in Women with Brain and Liver Metastases from Breast Cancer

“Nektar Therapeutics (NASDAQ: NKTR) announced topline results from its Phase 3 BEACON study evaluating single-agent NKTR-102 in patients with advanced breast cancer. BEACON compared NKTR-102 to an active control arm comprised of a single chemotherapy agent of physician’s choice (TPC) in patients who were heavily pre-treated with a median of three prior therapies for metastatic disease. In a topline analysis of 852 patients from the trial, NKTR-102 provided a 2.1 month improvement in median overall survival (OS) over TPC (12.4 months for patients receiving NKTR-102 compared to 10.3 months for patients receiving TPC). Based on a stratified log-rank analysis, the primary endpoint measuring the Hazard Ratio (HR) for survival in the NKTR-102 group compared to the active control arm was 0.87 with a p-value of 0.08, which did not achieve statistical significance.

“In a pre-specified subgroup of patients with a history of brain metastases, NKTR-102 showed an improvement of 5.2 months in median OS (10.0 months compared to 4.8 months, n=67, HR 0.51, p-value <0.01). The proportion of patients with brain metastases with 12-month survival was 44.4% in the NKTR-102 arm as compared to 19.4% in the control arm.”


Surgery for Melanoma Liver Mets Can Prolong Survival

“Patients who can undergo complete surgical treatment of melanoma liver metastases should consider this option, say oncologists from California.

“In their experience, hepatic resection [removal of part of the liver] for metastatic melanoma significantly improves survival over medical treatment alone, they report in the July issue of the Journal of the American College of Surgeons.

” ‘One of the take-home messages of the study is that surgery still can play a role in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma, even in the era of more effective medical therapies,’ said researcher Mark Faries, MD, FACS, director of the melanoma research program at the John Wayne Cancer Institute in Santa Monica, California.”


ASCO: Visceral Spread Guts Prostate Ca Survival Odds

“Lung, liver, and other visceral metastases are associated with the poorest survival in advanced hormone-refractory prostate cancer, according to results from a meta-analysis that sets the benchmark for prognosis.

“Lung metastases were associated with 30% higher adjusted odds of death compared with bone metastases (median survival 17 versus 20 months, P<0.002), Susan Halabi, PhD, of Duke University, and colleagues found.

“Liver metastases were even worse, with 40% higher adjusted odds of death compared with lung metastases after adjustment for performance status, prostate specific antigen (PSA), and age (median 12 months, P<0.001), the group reported here at the American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting.”


Melanoma of the Eye: Better Diagnostics and Future Treatments


Laitr Keiows / Wikimedia Commons Laitr Keiows / Wikimedia Commons

Ocular melanomas, or melanomas found in the eye, are fairly infrequent, but they are the most common type of eye tumor. In the U.S., there are about 2,000 cases diagnosed each year. They occur within one of the three parts of the eye: the iris, the choroid, or the ciliary body. Collectively, these are known as the ‘uvea,’ hence an alternative name for this cancer: uveal melanoma. Continue reading…


Combo Chemotherapy Bests Single Drug Against Melanoma

Two chemotherapy drugs may be better than one against melanoma, according to results from an ongoing clinical trial that were presented at the 2013 meeting of the  International Society for Melanoma Research. The drugs were dacarbazine, which is U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for melanoma, and paclitaxel, which is FDA-approved for breast, lung, and pancreatic cancers. In a phase III trial of 529 melanoma patients, the drug combination kept tumors from growing two times longer than dacarbazine alone (4.8 vs 2.5 months, respectively). The subgroups that did best included men and people with melanomas that had spread to the liver or brain. This is particularly encouraging for the latter group because they have the worst prognosis.