MicroRNAs as lung cancer biomarkers and key players in lung carcinogenesis

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression during various cell processes such as apoptosis, differentiation and development. In these last years, many works confirm a role for miRNAs in the initiation and progression of lung cancer. miRNA profiling has the potential to classify tumors with high accuracy and predict outcome. Here, we describe the roles of miRNA in lung carcinogenesis and the possibility to use them as biological markers for diagnostic, prognostic and predictive purposes.

Diagnostic Value of Circulating microRNAs for Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

Circulating microRNAs have been proposed as diagnostic indicators of lung cancer, but inconsistent results in the literature have prevented their widespread use in diagnosis. The present meta-analysis aimed to systematically evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of circulating microRNAs for lung cancer.

Circulating microRNAs show significant potential as diagnostic markers of lung cancer. The results of this meta-analysis justify larger, more rigorous studies to confirm such a diagnostic role.

Prognosis of lung cancer resection in patients with previous extra-respiratory solid malignancies

Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) following pulmonary or pharyngolaryngeal malignancies has been widely studied, but only a few articles have focussed on lung cancers following other solid malignancies. Our purpose was to compare the characteristics and prognosis of patients with NSCLC according to the medical history of the extra-pulmonary and extra-pharyngolaryngeal solid malignancy.
Despite an earlier diagnosis, a history of extra-pulmonary and extra-pharyngolaryngeal solid malignancy is associated with a worse prognosis in patients with NSCLC undergoing surgical resection. Overall survival is particularly low after a history of bladder and upper gastrointestinal malignancies.

Lung cancer epigenetics: emerging biomarkers

In the last decade, epigenetics and particularly research on DNA methylation have provided important information towards a better understanding of lung cancer pathogenesis. Novel and promising molecular biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of lung cancer are continuously emerging in this area, requiring further evaluation. This process includes extensive validation in prospective clinical trials before they can be routinely used in a clinical setting. This review summarizes the evidence on epigenetic biomarkers for lung cancer, focusing on DNA methylation.

Circulating lung cancer tumor cells isolated by the EpCAM-independent enrichment strategy correlate with Cytokeratin 19-derived CYFRA21-1 and pathological staging

Cytokeratin 19-derived CYFRA21-1 is an acceptable lung cancer biomarker. However, whether CYFRA21-1 correlates with circulating lung cancer tumor cells (CTCs) remains unclear. We show that lung cancer CTCs isolated by the EpCAM-independent enrichment approach correlate with CYFRA21-1 and TNM staging. Correlation of CTC and CYFRA21-1 in lung cancer patients is of potential clinical utility in terms of early diagnosis and predicting prognosis.

The role of anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors in the treatment of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer

Treatment of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has rapidly changed over the last decade. On the basis of the progress made in cancer biology, the old-fashioned ‘one size fits all’ chemotherapeutic approach is shifting to a novel approach in which treatment choice is mainly based on the tumor’s biological genotype. The aim of the present review is to describe the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocation as a prominent molecular driver aberration in NSCLC, its prognostic and predictive role, and the new available treatment options.

Identification of Oxidative Stress Related Proteins as Biomarkers for Lung Cancer and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

Lung cancer (LC) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) commonly coexist in smokers, and the presence of COPD increases the risk of developing LC. Cigarette smoke causes oxidative stress and an inflammatory response in lung cells, which in turn may be involved in COPD and lung cancer development. The aim of this study was to identify differential proteomic profiles related to oxidative stress response that were potentially involved in these two pathological entities. A distinct proteomic reactive oxygen species (ROS) protein signature emerged that characterized lung cancer and COPD. Our findings provide new candidate biomarkers and predictive tools for LC and COPD diagnosis.

Rationale for targeting the immune system through checkpoint molecule blockade in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer

Treatments of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)—particularly of the squamous subtype—are limited. In this article, we describe the immunomodulatory environment in NSCLC and the potential for therapeutic targeting of the immune system through cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1) immune-checkpoint pathway blockade.

Long-term clinical experience of high-dose ablative lung radiotherapy: High pre-treatment [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography

The aim of this study was to report the long-term clinical experience with lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). Lung SABR remains an effective and safe local treatment modality. Pre-treatment maximal standardized uptake valu (mSUV) may be a helpful parameter to select patients requiring higher radiation doses and adjuvant systemic therapy for lung SABR.