“Multigene testing of women who tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 found some of them harbored other harmful genetic mutations—most commonly, moderate-risk breast and ovarian cancer genes, as well as Lynch syndrome genes (which increase the risk of ovarian cancer)—according to an article by Desmond et al in JAMA Oncology.
“Multigene panel genetic tests are increasingly recommended for patients evaluated for a predisposition to hereditary breast/ovarian cancer. However, the rapid introduction of these tests has raised concerns, because many of the tested genes are low- to moderate-risk genes for which consensus management guidelines have not been introduced or were introduced only very recently, according to the study background.
“Leif W. Ellisen, MD, PhD, of Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, and coauthors wanted to determine how often multigene panel testing would identify mutations that warranted some clinical action among women appropriately tested but lacking BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.”
“A new drug that unleashes the body’s immune system to attack tumors can prolong the lives of people with the most common form of lung cancer, doctors reported on Friday, the latest example of the significant results being achieved by this new class of medicines.
“In a separate study, researchers said they had found that a particular genetic signature in the tumor can help predict which patients could benefit from the immune-boosting drugs.
“The finding could potentially extend use of these drugs to some patients with colorectal cancer, prostate cancer and other tumors that have seemed almost impervious to the new drugs. Most of the substantial results so far with these expensive drugs have been in treating melanoma and lung cancer.
“ ‘If you have the signature, you should treat with these checkpoint inhibitors,’ Dr. Luis A. Diaz Jr., an associate professor of oncology at Johns Hopkins University and the senior author of the study on the genetic marker, said in an interview, referring to the new drugs.”
Lynch syndrome is an inherited disorder that causes a higher risk of several different types of cancer in families carrying the mutation. Researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center have now found that men with the syndrome have a 30% higher lifetime risk of developing prostate cancer. The findings of the study, published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, suggest that men with Lynch syndrome should consider regular prostate cancer screening programs.