MET/EGFR Combo Effective for Advanced NSCLC

Excerpt:

“The combination of osimertinib (Tagrisso) and the MET inhibitor savolitinib showed signs of efficacy for pretreated patients with MET-positive, EGFR-mutant non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), regardless of prior treatment with a T790M-directed therapy, according to findings from part B of the TATTON trial presented at the 2017 World Conference on Lung Cancer (WCLC).

“Across patients in the phase Ib study (N = 64), the objective response rate (ORR) was 47% with the combination of osimertinib and savolitinib. In those pretreated with a T790M-directed therapy (n = 30), the ORR was 33% and in those with T790M-negative disease (n = 23) the ORR was 61%. In patients with T790M-positive disease (n = 11), the ORR was 55% for the combination.”

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Adding Tivantinib to Standard Erlotinib Treatment Improved Outcomes for Specific Subgroup of Patients with Lung Cancer

“Adding the investigational anticancer therapeutic tivantinib to standard erlotinib treatment substantially increased progression-free survival for patients with advanced nonsquamous non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had tumors positive for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations, according to a subset analysis of data from the phase III MARQUEE clinical trial presented at the AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics, held Nov. 5–9.

” ‘EGFR inhibitors like erlotinib are effective treatments for patients with advanced NSCLC with and without EGFR mutations,’ said Wallace Akerley, MD, director of thoracic oncology at the Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City. ‘However, tumors invariably develop resistance. MET overexpression is associated with resistance to EGFR therapy, and the phase III MARQUEE clinical trial set out to investigate whether adding the MET inhibitor tivantinib to erlotinib treatment could improve patient outcomes.’ “


Responses with Crizotinib in MET-Amplified Lung Cancer Show New Targetable Form of Disease

In 2011, the drug crizotinib earned accelerated approval by the US FDA to target the subset of advanced non-small cell lung cancers caused by rearrangements of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, and subsequently was granted regular approval in 2013. The drug also has shown dramatic responses in patients whose lung cancers harbored a different molecular abnormality, namely ROS1 gene rearrangements. Previously unreported phase 1 clinical trial results now show that crizotinib may have a third important molecular target. In advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients with intermediate and high amplifications of the MET gene, crizotinib produced either disease stabilization or tumor response. Sixty-seven percent of patients with high MET amplification showed prolonged response to the drug, which lasted from approximately 6 months to nearly 2.5 years.”

Editor’s note: Crizotinib (aka Xalkori) is a targeted therapy drug that kills cancer cells by targeting certain molecules found in the cells. It was already known that crizotinib works well for some patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose cancer cells have mutations in the ALK gene and in the ROS1 gene; such mutations, or “molecular biomarkers,” are detected by a medical procedure known as “molecular testing,” or “genetic testing.” Now, scientists say that crizotinib may also be effective for patients with advanced NSCLC whose tumors have abnormally high activity of a protein called MET, which can also be detected via molecular testing.


Squamous Lung Cancer ‘Master Protocol’ Brings Cancer Research into the 21st Century


Clinical trials help determine whether new cancer treatments are safe and effective, and they provide access to cutting-edge drugs that patients wouldn’t otherwise be able to have. But the clinical trial system is notoriously inefficient, slow, expensive, and laborious. Now, a new and ambitious clinical trial design called the Lung Cancer Master Protocol seeks to overhaul the system, promising to benefit patients and drug companies alike. Continue reading…


Committee: NSCLC Study Should be Halted Due to Lack of Efficacy

“An independent data monitoring committee recommended that a phase 3 study designed to evaluate the combination of onartuzumab and erlotinib in a subset of patients with non–small cell lung cancer be stopped due to lack of clinically meaningful efficacy, according to a press release issued by the drugs’ manufacturer.

“The randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled MetLung study compared the humanized monoclonal antibody onartuzumab (MetMab, Genentech) plus the protein kinase inhibitor erlotinib(Tarceva, Genentech) vs. erlotinib alone in patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC whose tumors were MET-positive.”


Interim Results from Lung Cancer Clinical Trial of Tivantinib Remain Ambiguous

An ongoing clinical trial is evaluating the effects of cancer drug tivantinib in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The trial studies patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC who do not have any mutations in the EGFR gene. Patients receive erlotinib (Tarceva) either by itself or in combination with tivantinib. Enrollment in the trial was stopped because rates of interstitial lung disease (ILD), which can cause lung scarring, may be higher in patients receiving tivantinib. (No such increased levels of ILD were seen in a different trial using tivantinib.) For the patients already enrolled, overall survival, time without cancer worsening, and percentage of patients experiencing tumor shrinkage all seem increased in tivantinib-treated patients. However, it is not yet clear whether these effects are indeed caused by tivantinib or are due to chance.


Effect of New Lung Cancer Drug Depends on MET Protein Expression Levels

The cell protein MET is overexpressed in more than half of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors. MET overexpression is associated with worse prognoses and plays a role in drug resistance to EGFR inhibitors like erlotinib (Tarceva). A recent clinical trial examined the effects of onartuzumab, which inhibits MET function, on recurrent NSCLC. Patients received either onartuzumab and Tarceva or Tarceva only. In patients who overexpressed MET, adding onartuzumab increased the time until cancer progression and prolonged overall survival. In contrast, in patients without MET overexpression, adding onartuzumab worsened outcomes. This finding highlights the importance of diagnostic testing in choosing the best cancer treatment. A clinical trial investigating the onartuzumab-Tarceva combination in MET-overexpressing patients only is currently enrolling participants.


MET Inhibitor Fails to Prolong Life in NSCLC Trial

A clinical trial of a MET inhibitor has been stopped because the drug doesn’t keep people with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) alive longer, researchers reported at the 2013 European Cancer Congress in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The phase III trial included 1,048 people with NSCLC, where half were given the MET inhibitor tivantinib, in combination with erlotinib, which inhibits a protein linked to abnormal cell division. Although tivantinib did not extend life, it did keep tumors from growing for awhile (3.6 mo with this drug vs 1.9 mo without it). Now, the researchers are analyzing the results to see if tivantinib benefitted people with tumors that make too much of the MET protein.


Improved MET Inhibitors May Have Potential as Lung Cancer Treatments

MET, also known as c-Met, is a protein that normally occurs only at low levels in healthy tissues, but is overabundant and often mutated in many tumors, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is therefore a promising target for cancer treatments called MET inhibitors. However, currently available MET inhibitors also interfere with other proteins, leading to serious side effects and limiting their usefulness. In a recent study, researchers showed that the new MET inhibitors EMD 1214063 and EMD 1204831 are highly selective for MET only. The two drugs also shrank NSCLC tumors implanted into mice, suggesting that they may be promising treatments for NSCLC.