AUA: Prostate Cancer Studies Highlight DNA Repair Gene Involvement

Excerpt:

“Two new studies presented at the Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Urological Association (AUA) offer an improved understanding of some genetic underpinnings of prostate cancer. In one, researchers found that BRCA mutations may raise the risk of the malignancy substantially, while another found a high rate of mutations among other DNA repair genes as well.

” ‘These studies reveal new insights into the role genetic mutations play in the development of prostate cancer, particularly metastatic disease,’ said Scott Eggener, MD, of the University of Chicago Medicine, who moderated the session with these studies, in a press release.”

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Metformin Use Does Not Increase Prostate Cancer Survival

Excerpt:

“Metformin use in combination with docetaxel chemotherapy does not significantly improve survival in patients with diabetes and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, according to a study published in the April issue of The Journal of Urology.

“Michelle J. Mayer, from Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, and colleagues used data from several Ontario administrative health care databases to identify men (older than 65 years) diagnosed with metastatic castration-resistant cancer and treated with docetaxel. Patients were stratified into groups based on diabetes status and use of antidiabetic medications to assess the effect of use with docetaxel on survival.”

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Oncotype DX® Predicts 10-year Risk of Developing Metastatic Prostate Cancer in Low- and Intermediate-risk Patients

Excerpt:

“Genomic Health, Inc. (Nasdaq: GHDX) today announced the presentation of new results from a large multi-center validation study, which confirmed that the Oncotype DX® Genomic Prostate Score™ (GPS) is a strong independent predictor of metastases at 10 years in prostate cancer patients across all National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) clinical risk groups. The clinical validation study data were designated one of the ‘best posters’ (abstract #352) at the 32nd Annual European Association of Urology (EAU) Congress in London.”

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Blood Test Instead of Biopsy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

Excerpt:

“There has been a lot of buzz recently about the use of ‘liquid biopsies’ and how these blood tests that show cancer may be able to replace the need for tissue biopsies.

“The latest study shows that such a test could be useful in metastatic prostate cancer, where the biopsy sample would need to be taken from bone, which is painful, risky, and expensive, says an expert.

“This study used the Guardant360 test and found that cell-free, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) was detected in most patients (94%) with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).”

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New Type of PET Imaging Identifies Primary and Metastatic Prostate Cancer

Excerpt:

“In the featured article from the February 2017 issue of the Journal of Nuclear Medicine, researchers document the first-in-human application of a new imaging agent to help find prostate cancer in both early and advanced stages and plan treatment. The study indicates that the new agent — a PET radiotracer — is both safe and effective.

“The new agent is a gallium-68 (Ga-68)-labeled peptide BBN-RGD agent that targets both gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) and integrin ?v?3. Dual-receptor targeting provides advantages over single-receptor targeting by allowing tumor contrast when either or both receptor types are expressed, improving binding affinity and increasing the number of effective receptors.”

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Video: Dr. Kantoff on Docetaxel Plus Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Prostate Cancer

Excerpt:

“Philip W. Kantoff, MD, chair of the Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and a 2014 Giants of Cancer Care winner for Genitourinary Cancer, discusses the combination of docetaxel (Taxotere) chemotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in the setting of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.

“Considering the positive results in overall survival from the CHAARTED and STAMPEDE trials, which combined ADT with docetaxel, the next step became determining which patients would benefit from this combination.”

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Researchers Investigate New Targeted Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

Excerpt:

“Men with localized prostate cancer face good odds: Their relative five-year survival rate is nearly 100 percent. However, men with metastatic disease — prostate cancer that has spread to another organ like the lungs — have a relative five-year survival rate of only 29 percent.

“Currently, the mainstay treatment for metastatic prostate cancer is hormone therapy, which uses drugs to lower the levels of male sex hormones like testosterone in the body to slow the growth of prostate cancer. Two of the latest hormonal agents, abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide, have shown some improvements in overall survival. Unfortunately, hormone therapy isn’t a cure and most patients become resistant to the drugs.”

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Hope for Metastatic Prostate Cancer Patients: Targeted Alpha Therapy Shows Impressive Results

Excerpt:

“Nearly three years of research have brought about remarkable results for the majority of 80 patients subjected to targeted alpha therapy of metastatic prostate cancer. The first assessments — describing a full response in two patients in critical clinical condition with extensive metastases — are published in the December issue of the Journal of Nuclear Medicine (JNM), which has displayed images depicting the improvements on its cover page.

“The tumour has completely disappeared in the two patients after three to four treatments and can no longer be detected neither by PET/CT imaging nor by the tumour marker PSA (Prostate-specific antigen), whose blood level is often elevated in men with prostate cancer. PET/CT (positron emission tomography-computed tomography) is a technique used in oncology that combines the use of two devices to provide a highly accurate picture of the spread of cancer.”

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How Highs and Lows in Testosterone Levels ‘Shock’ Prostate Cancer Cells to Death

Excerpt:

“Munich, Germany: A strategy of alternately flooding and starving the body of testosterone is producing good results in patients who have metastatic prostate cancer that is resistant to treatment by chemical or surgical castration, according to new findings.
“In a presentation at the 28th EORTC-NCI-AACR Symposium on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics in Munich, Germany, today (Thursday), researchers reported that results from 47 men who have completed at least three cycles of bipolar androgen therapy (BAT) showed that the strategy was safe and effective. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels fell in the majority of the men, tumours shrank in some men, in several the disease did not progress and this included some whose disease continued to be stable for more than a year. One man appears to have been ‘cured’, in that his PSA levels dropped to zero after three months and have remained so for 22 cycles of treatment, with no trace of the disease remaining. The researchers are planning to treat a group of 60 men in total.”

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