OncoBriefs: Local Tx for mRCC, Cervical Ca Prevention (CME/CE)

Editor’s note: This article describes three separate new findings in cancer research. The first is relevant for people with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Researchers have found that image-guided local ablation of tumors still has an important treatment role, even though there have been recent improvements in mRCC drugs. The second finding concerns people with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETS). A clinical trial with volunteer patients found promising results for patients treated with the new drug lanreotide (aka Somatuline). The third finding has to do with preventing cervical cancer in women at high risk for the disease. The women involved in the study had high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2/3), and were treated with surgical removal of the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ). These women had only low-grade recurrences, suggesting that removing SCJ cells might help prevent cervical cancer.

“More than 80% of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) remained alive without disease progression 3 years after image-guided local ablation of tumors, a retrospective study showed.

“Six of 76 evaluable tumors recurred an average of 1.6 years from treatment. Local ablation represents a “relatively safe procedure with acceptable local control rates,” authors concluded in an article published in the August issue of the Journal of Urology. A summary of the article leads off this edition of OncoBriefs, which also examines a somatostatin derivative for neurendocrine tumors and a surgical approach to cervical cancer prevention.”


Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Sequester Circulating Tumor Cells and Promote Metastasis

“The majority of patients with cancer undergo at least one surgical procedure as part of their treatment. Severe postsurgical infection is associated with adverse oncologic outcomes; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. Emerging evidence suggests that neutrophils, which function as the first line of defense during infections, facilitate cancer progression. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular neutrophil-derived DNA webs released in response to inflammatory cues that trap and kill invading pathogens. The role of NETs in cancer progression is entirely unknown. We report that circulating tumor cells become trapped within NETs in vitro under static and dynamic conditions. In a murine model of infection using cecal ligation and puncture, we demonstrated microvascular NET deposition and consequent trapping of circulating lung carcinoma cells within DNA webs. NET trapping was associated with increased formation of hepatic micrometastases at 48 hours and gross metastatic disease burden at 2 weeks following tumor cell injection. These effects were abrogated by NET inhibition with DNAse or a neutrophil elastase inhibitor. These findings implicate NETs in the process of cancer metastasis in the context of systemic infection and identify NETs as potential therapeutic targets.”


Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Sequester Circulating Tumor Cells and Promote Metastasis

“The majority of patients with cancer undergo at least one surgical procedure as part of their treatment. Severe postsurgical infection is associated with adverse oncologic outcomes; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. Emerging evidence suggests that neutrophils, which function as the first line of defense during infections, facilitate cancer progression. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular neutrophil-derived DNA webs released in response to inflammatory cues that trap and kill invading pathogens. The role of NETs in cancer progression is entirely unknown. We report that circulating tumor cells become trapped within NETs in vitro under static and dynamic conditions. In a murine model of infection using cecal ligation and puncture, we demonstrated microvascular NET deposition and consequent trapping of circulating lung carcinoma cells within DNA webs. NET trapping was associated with increased formation of hepatic micrometastases at 48 hours and gross metastatic disease burden at 2 weeks following tumor cell injection. These effects were abrogated by NET inhibition with DNAse or a neutrophil elastase inhibitor. These findings implicate NETs in the process of cancer metastasis in the context of systemic infection and identify NETs as potential therapeutic targets.”


Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Sequester Circulating Tumor Cells and Promote Metastasis

“The majority of patients with cancer undergo at least one surgical procedure as part of their treatment. Severe postsurgical infection is associated with adverse oncologic outcomes; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. Emerging evidence suggests that neutrophils, which function as the first line of defense during infections, facilitate cancer progression. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular neutrophil-derived DNA webs released in response to inflammatory cues that trap and kill invading pathogens. The role of NETs in cancer progression is entirely unknown. We report that circulating tumor cells become trapped within NETs in vitro under static and dynamic conditions. In a murine model of infection using cecal ligation and puncture, we demonstrated microvascular NET deposition and consequent trapping of circulating lung carcinoma cells within DNA webs. NET trapping was associated with increased formation of hepatic micrometastases at 48 hours and gross metastatic disease burden at 2 weeks following tumor cell injection. These effects were abrogated by NET inhibition with DNAse or a neutrophil elastase inhibitor. These findings implicate NETs in the process of cancer metastasis in the context of systemic infection and identify NETs as potential therapeutic targets.”