“UCLA scientists have discovered that people with cancers containing genetic mutations JAK1 or JAK2, which are known to prevent tumors from recognizing or receiving signals from T cells to stop growing, will have little or no benefit from the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab. This early-stage research has allowed them to determine for the first time why some people with advanced melanoma or advanced colon cancer will not respond to pembrolizumab, an anti-PD-1 treatment.
“The study, led by Dr. Antoni Ribas, director of the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center Tumor Immunology Program, also found that JAK1 or JAK2 genetic mutations led to a loss of reactive PD-L1 expression. PD-L1 is an immune biomarker expressed on tumor cells and pembrolizumab requires an abundance of it to effectively attack cancer cells.”
“Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) and AstraZeneca have each announced separate delays in the development of PD-1 and CTLA-4 inhibitor combinations as first-line therapies for patients with advanced or metastatic non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to statements from each of the companies.
“In its statement, BMS noted that it would not be pursuing an accelerated approval for the combination of nivolumab (Opdivo) and ipilimumab (Yervoy) as a frontline therapy for NSCLC. Instead, the company plans to delay the submission of data to the FDA until findings from a phase III study are available, most likely from the phase III CheckMate-227 trial.”
“Immunotherapy is quickly becoming a mainstay in the frontline setting for the treatment of patients with metastatic non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
“In October 2016, the FDA approved the PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab (Keytruda) as a first-line treatment for patients with metastatic NSCLC whose tumors have at least 50% PD-L1 expression and who do not harbor EGFR or ALK mutations.”
“The FDA granted priority review to a supplemental biologics license application for pembrolizumab in combination with chemotherapy for first-line treatment of patients with metastatic, nonsquamous non–small cell lung cancer, according to the drug’s manufacturer.
“The application seeks approval of pembrolizumab (Keytruda, Merck), an anti–PD-1 therapy, in combination with pemetrexed and carboplatin regardless of patients’ PD-L1 expression, provided they have no EGFR or ALK mutations.
“The FDA is expected to make a decision by May 10.”
“Incyte Corporation (Nasdaq:INCY) and Merck (NYSE:MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, today announced the decision to advance the clinical development program investigating the combination of epacadostat, Incyte’s investigational oral selective IDO1 inhibitor, with KEYTRUDA® (pembrolizumab), Merck’s anti-PD-1 therapy.
“With the expansion of the clinical development program, the companies plan to initiate pivotal studies of epacadostat in combination with KEYTRUDA in four additional tumors: non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, bladder cancer and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Presentations of data from the ongoing studies of epacadostat in combination with KEYTRUDA, which support this decision, are expected at upcoming medical meetings.”
“Merck (NYSE: MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, and Eisai Inc. today announced new interim data investigating Merck’s anti-PD-1 therapy, KEYTRUDA® (pembrolizumab), in combination with Eisai’s microtubule dynamics inhibitor, HALAVEN® (eribulin) in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Findings presented during the 2016 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) were based on interim data from 39 evaluable patients and showed an overall response rate (ORR) of 33.3% (n=13/39; 95% CI, 19.5-48.1), with one complete response and 12 partial responses (Abstract #: P5-15-02). ORR was similar between PD-L1-positive and -negative cohorts [PD-L1 positive=29.4% (n=5/17; 95% CI, 11.1-51.1); PD-L1 negative=33.3% (n=6/18; 95% CI, 14.1-54.6)]. HALAVEN and KEYTRUDA are not approved for use in combination.”
“Neoadjuvant immunotherapy with the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor nivolumab (Opdivo) is safe and feasible in early-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The results come from the first report of PD-1 blockade prior to surgery in this tumor, according to Patrick Forde, MD, of The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, who reported these findings at the 2016 European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress.”
“Neoadjuvant immunotherapy with the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor nivolumab (Opdivo) is safe and feasible in early-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The results come from the first report of PD-1 blockade prior to surgery in this tumor, according to Patrick Forde, MD, of The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, who reported these findings at the 2016 European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress.
” ‘Thirty-nine percent of patients with early-stage NSCLC treated with two doses of nivolumab had major pathologic responses associated with immune cell infiltration of tumor,’ Dr. Forde reported. ‘One hypothesis is that having tumor in situ when you give anti–PD-1—having more antigen present—may be better than giving it in the adjuvant setting, where only micrometastases may be present.’ ”
“Although nivolumab (Opdivo) has demonstrated a clear survival advantage compared with chemotherapy in patients with progressive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who express PD-L1 in their tumor cells, the same cannot be said for those who are PD-L1–negative.
“As a result, researchers are seeking to elicit antitumor activity in a broader range of patients, notably through a multiarm trial evaluating the PD-1 inhibitor along with combinatorial approaches.
“CheckMate-227 (NCT02477826) is a phase III, open-label, randomized trial for patients with chemotherapy-naïve stage IV or recurrent NSCLC. The trial will enroll patients into separate groups according to PD-L1 expression status (≥1% or <1%).”