“First-line crizotinib therapy offered better intracranial disease control rate (IC-DCR) than chemotherapy in patients with ALK-positive non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and stable treated brain metastases, according to results of a phase III study.
“Earlier results from the ongoing PROFILE 1014 trial showed that crizotinib offers better progression-free survival (PFS) and response rates compared with pemetrexed-platinum chemotherapy. ‘Although the development of targeted therapies has improved outcomes for selected patient populations with oncogenic driver mutations, brain metastases are frequent and result in significant morbidity and mortality in patients with lung cancer,’ wrote study authors led by Benjamin J. Solomon, MBBS, PhD, of the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre in East Melbourne, Australia.”
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“The anti–PD-L1 agent atezolizumab (MPDL3280A) was recently investigated for safety and efficacy in combination with platinum-based doublet chemotherapy in treatment-naïve patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Results from the phase Ib study were presented at the 2015 ASCO Annual Meeting.
“The multiple-arm study looked at MPDL3280A with a different chemotherapy backbone in each arm: carboplatin plus paclitaxel (Arm C; n = 8) carboplatin plus pemetrexed (Arm D; n = 14) or carboplatin plus nab-paclitaxel (Arm E; n = 15).
“Across all arms, the overall response rate (ORR) was 67% (48%-82%), with 60% ORR (19%-92%) in Arm C (3 partial responses [PRs]), 75% (45%-93%) in Arm D (9 PRs), and 62% (33%-83%) in Arm E (6 PRs, 2 complete responses).
“Regarding the safety profile, the researchers concluded that the combination regimens were well tolerated. The most frequent all-grade adverse events included those commonly associated with chemotherapy, such as nausea (Arms C and D, 50%; Arm E, 73%), fatigue (Arm C, 38%; Arm D, 36%; Arm E, 73%) and constipation (Arm C, 25%; Arm D, 71%; Arm E, 27%).
“OncLive spoke with Stephen Liu, MD, lead author on the study and assistant professor, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Georgetown University, to better understand the results and purpose of the uniquely designed trial, and how oncologists may need to rethink trial design when investigating similar novel agents.”
“The combination of pemetrexed and cisplatin was superior to gemcitabine and cisplatin only in those non-squamous non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who were negative for the enzyme thymidylate synthase (TS), suggesting it could be used as a predictive marker to guide treatment.
“Previous research has shown that pemetrexed/cisplatin offers superior survival in nonsquamous NSCLC, while gemcitabine/cisplatin was better in squamous NSCLC. “A plausible mechanism for the histotype-dependent efficacy of pemetrexed-based chemotherapy can be explained by the presence of different levels of TS according to histologic types, with adenocarcinoma of lung cancer exhibiting a lower TS protein expression level than squamous cell carcinoma or neuroendocrine carcinoma,” wrote study authors led by Myung-Ju Ahn, MD, PhD, of Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine in Seoul.
“TS is involved in de novo DNA synthesis, and inhibiting the enzyme leads to arrested cell proliferation; pemetrexed’s antitumor effects arise from inhibition of TS. The new study’s results were published online ahead of print in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.”
“OncoGenex Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: OGXI) and Sarah Cannon announced today that patient enrollment has been completed in the Spruce™ clinical trial, an investigator-sponsored, randomized, placebo-controlled Phase 2 trial evaluating apatorsen in combination with carboplatin and pemetrexed in patients with previously untreated, advanced, non-squamous, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Spruce is sponsored and led by Sarah Cannon Research Institute (SCRI), the research arm of Sarah Cannon, Hospital Corporation of America’s (HCA) global cancer enterprise, and is being conducted at 16 sites across the United States.
“In the Spruce trial, approximately 155 patients were randomized to receive either apatorsen or placebo in combination with carboplatin and pemetrexed therapy. The primary objective of the trial is progression-free survival (PFS), with additional analyses to evaluate overall survival, tumor response rates, safety, tolerability and the effect of therapy on heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) levels.
” ‘Despite advances in targeted therapies to treat lung cancer, the majority of patients lack specific biomarkers and chemotherapy remains a mainstay of treatment for these patients,’ stated David Spigel MD, Director of the Lung Cancer Research Program at Sarah Cannon Research Institute and trial study chair. ‘The Spruce trial will enable us to better understand the role of apatorsen in treating NSCLC and its potential to delay or prevent treatment resistance and improve survival outcomes for these patients who urgently need more effective treatment options.’ “
“Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc. MACK, +1.95% today announced the initiation of a global, open-label, biomarker-selected, randomized Phase 2 clinical trial of MM-121, a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting ErbB3, in combination with docetaxel or pemetrexed versus docetaxel or pemetrexed alone in patients with heregulin positive, locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.
” ‘This marks the first MM-121 trial we’ve initiated where only patients with a high heregulin biomarker profile will be enrolled into the study. It builds on our learnings from the previous MM-121 Phase 2 clinical trials we completed across lung, ovarian and breast cancers where we saw a clear trend of patients in those studies with this biomarker profile benefitting from combining MM-121 with standard therapies,’ said Akos Czibere, MD, PhD, MM-121 Global Development Lead at Merrimack. ‘This study is a significant step toward preparing a registration trial of MM-121 in non-small cell lung cancer, and further supports Merrimack’s systems biology approach and its impact on drug discovery and development. We look forward to applying our clinical biomarker findings to future studies with MM-121 and ultimately improving outcomes in patients who no longer respond to standard-of-care therapies.’ “
The gist: Cyramza, a drug recently approved for treating certain lung cancer patients, does not improve a standard treatment for stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In a clinical trial, Cyramza was given to patients along with the drug pemetrexed (Alimta) and platinum chemotherapy. Some patients received only Alimta and platinum chemotherapy. None of the patients had yet been treated with chemotherapy. The researchers found that there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the amount of time that passed without their cancers worsening.
“In a study of patients with nonsquamous non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the addition of ramucirumab (Cyramza) to pemetrexed (Alimta) and platinum chemotherapy did not significantly improve progression-free survival, according to a study by Doebele et al in Cancer. However, the investigators did suggest a possible clinical benefit of adding ramucirumab to established pemetrexed/platinum chemotherapy in patients with stage IV nonsquamous NSCLC not previously treated with chemotherapy.
“Studies have shown that patients with nonsquamous NSCLC who are treated with a combination of the platinum-containing agents pemetrexed and cisplatin have an overall survival of just 9 to 11 months. More recent studies in NSCLC have focused on the addition of targeted biologic agents, such as bevacizumab (Avastin), to platinum-containing chemotherapy to improve clinical outcomes. Bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor ligand, is currently the only antiangiogenic agent approved for nonsquamous NSCLC. A correlation between VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression and tumor microvessel density has been associated with a poor prognosis and lower relapse-free survival.
“With that in mind, Doebele and colleagues conducted a phase II study of the addition of ramucirumab to pemetrexed and platinum chemotherapy. Ramucirumab, a fully human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody, specifically binds to the extracellular domain of VEGFR2 with high affinity. The investigators wanted to determine whether the addition of ramucirumab to a standard first-line platinum-based combination chemotherapy regimen would result in prolonged progression-free survival….
“The results of this study indicate the addition of ramucirumab did not significantly prolong progression-free survival in patients with nonsquamous NSCLC. In addition, the overall response rate was not significantly improved for patients receiving ramucirumab vs those receiving only pemetrexed and platinum-based therapy. However, the investigators did suggest a possible clinical benefit of adding ramucirumab to established pemetrexed/platinum chemotherapy for the first-line treatment of nonsquamous NSCLC.”
The gist: Scientists have found that measuring a patient’s levels of a protein called thymidylate synthase (TS) could predict how well different kinds of chemotherapy might work for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Specifically, patients with low-levels of TS benefitted more from treatment with cisplatin plus pemetrexed than with cisplatin plus gemcitabine.
“A new phase II study suggests that expression of the enzyme thymidylate synthase (TS) can be used as a predictive marker for patients with non–small-cell lung cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Benefits of cisplatin plus pemetrexed over cisplatin plus gemcitabine were more pronounced in TS-negative patients than in TS-positive patients.
“ ‘Thymidylate synthase,’ said Myung-Ju Ahn, MD, of Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine in Seoul, in a press release, ‘is targeted by pemetrexed, which is the most widely used chemotherapeutic regimen in the treatment of non-squamous NSCLC.’ Previous work has shown that the cisplatin/pemetrexed combination is superior to cisplatin/gemcitabine in non-squamous NSCLC, but levels of TS could predict the level of response.
“In this study, 315 non-squamous NSCLC patients were first stratified as either TS-positive (more than 10% of tumor cells express TS) or TS-negative, and then randomized to cisplatin plus either pemetrexed or gemcitabine. Results were presented at the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) 2014 Congress in Madrid.
“The objective response rate in the cisplatin/pemetrexed patients who were TS-negative was 47%, compared with 21.1% in the cisplatin/gemcitabine group. In the TS-positive patients, meanwhile, the objective response rates were 40.3% for cisplatin/pemetrexed patients and 39.2% for cisplatin/gemcitabine patients (P = .008).”
Editor’s note: This article describes the results of a clinical trial—a research study with volunteer patients. The goal of the trial was to test a new treatment for women with advanced, recurrent cervical cancer. The treatment combines the drugs pemetrexed and cisplatin. The results were promising: the new treatment appeared to be safe and effective. More research needs to be done to determine just how effective it is. Also, scientists are interested in testing whether it is even more effective when combined with the targeted drug bevacizumab (Avastin).
“The combination of pemetrexed and cisplatin appeared safe and effective in women with advanced, persistent or recurrent carcinoma of the cervix, according to results of a phase 2 trial.
“ ‘This combination should be further developed in the treatment of cervical cancer,’ David Scott Miller, MD, professor of obstetrics and gynecology at UT Southwestern Medical Center, and colleagues wrote. ‘Given that it may be less toxic than and as active as cisplatin plus paclitaxel, and that it can be combined with bevacizumab (Avastin, Genentech), comparison of cisplatin–pemetrexed plus bevacizumab with cisplatin–paclitaxel plus bevacizumab would be appropriate.’ ”
The gist: A long-term study investigated the effects of new lung cancer treatments over time. They found that survival has improved for people with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as new, better chemotherapy and targeted therapy treatments have been developed. The researchers also noted that survival has improved for patients who receive chemotherapy and specifically additional (“second-line”) treatment after their initial treatment.
“A 10-year population-based study shows that increased availability of better systemic chemo- and targeted-therapies for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) coincides with increased usage of these therapies. This in turn leads to a significant increase in overall survival.
“Researchers from the British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, Canada, performed a retrospective chart review of all patients referred to the agency with advanced stage (IIIB or IV) lung cancer and grouped the patients into 4 one-year time frame cohorts; one termed ‘baseline’ and three other groups that each started 6-months after a new second-line agent (docetaxel, erlotinib and pemetrexed) was made commercially available and put into practice. In British Columbia, Canada, the implementation of the second-line agents docetaxel, erlotinib and pemetrexed occurred in December 2000, October 2005 and June 2007, respectively. Cohort 1 (January to December 1998) with 555 patients was the baseline and cohort 2 (May 2001-April 2002) had 613 patients, cohort 3 (March 2006-February 2007) had 688 patients and Cohort 4 (November 2007-Ocotober 2008) had 750 patients.
“The results published in the August Issue of the Journal of Thoracic Oncology, the official journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, show that the usage of second-line therapy increased significantly over time. At baseline only 21% of the patients received second-line therapy but in Cohorts 2 and 3 this increased to 27% and 37% respectively, and by Cohort 4 more than half, 55%, received second-line therapy. The most common agent in Cohort 1 was docetaxel (48%) but by Cohort 4 erlotinib (EGFR TKIs) and pemetrexed were used 50% and 26% of the time. The research also found that the proportion of patients who received at least first-line systemic chemotherapy also increased over the four time points from 16% in Cohort 1 to 23%, 34% and 33% for Cohorts 2-4, respectively.”