“For prostate cancer patients who have rising levels of PSA (a cancer indicator) even after radical prostatectomy, early treatment makes a difference. In a study featured in the December issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine, Australian researchers demonstrate that PET scans can identify which of these prostate cancer patients would benefit from salvage radiation treatment (SRT).
” ‘The research is novel because it looks at the impact of PSMA PET/CT on patient responses to treatment, not just on whether the PET scan results in changed management,’ explains Louise Emmett, MD, of the St. Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, Australia. She elaborates, ‘In the study, these patients underwent imaging with a PSMA PET scan and had treatment based on the results of the scan findings. The study then followed how these men were treated, and whether the treatment was effective.’ ”
“A molecular imaging biomarker is able to detect fast-growing primary prostate cancer and distinguish it from benign prostate lesions, addressing an unmet clinical need. The new research, published in the July 2015 issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine, is significant for patients with suspected prostate cancer that has not been confirmed by standard biopsy.
” ‘We were able to demonstrate in our research that PSMA PET imaging was more specific than MR imaging for detection of clinically significant high-grade prostate cancer lesions, and importantly was able to distinguish benign prostate lesions from primary prostate cancer, currently a difficult diagnostic imaging task,’ stated Steven P. Rowe, MD, PhD, resident at Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions in Baltimore, Md. ‘Additionally, this work demonstrated a direct correlation between PSMA PET radiotracer activity in prostate cancer and prostate adenocarcinoma aggressiveness (Gleason score).’ “
“Positron emission tomography (PET) could be used to predict the response of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy within a couple of weeks of a patient beginning treatment, research suggests.
“Changes in volume-based metabolic parameters of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) before and after 14 days of treatment with sunitinib, sorafenib or pazopanib significantly correlated with progression-free and overall survival, say Jacob Farnebo (Karokinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden) and co-authors.”
Editor’s note: Doctors and patients can make more informed treatment decisions if they can more closely monitor how well a treatment is working and predict how well it is likely to work in the long run. This story discusses how monitoring with positron emission tomography (PET) within the first couple of weeks of treatment might help predict how well certain drugs will work. PET scanning produces 3-D images of the inside of the body. Scientists conducted a study in which they gave PET scans to volunteer patients who were being treated with the drugs sunitinib, sorafenib, or pazopanib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). They found that, within two weeks of the patients starting treatment, they could use information from the PET scans to determine the effectiveness of the treatment. They were able to link these PET scan results to how long the patients lived and how much time passed before patients’ disease worsened.
“Researchers are using breath analysis to detect the presence of lung cancer. Preliminary data indicate that this promising noninvasive tool offers the sensitivity of PET scanning, and has almost twice the specificity of PET for distinguishing patients with benign lung disease from those with early stage cancer.”
A positive fluorodeoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET) scan predicted significantly worse survival in patients with stage IA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), suggesting a potential to identify candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy, a retrospective analysis showed.
Choi NC, Chun TT ... Lynch TJ, Fischman AJ, Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging, Feb 12, 2013
We investigated the metabolic response of lung cancer to radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy by (18)F-FDG PET and its utility in guiding timely supplementary therapy. The cut-off values (MRglc ≤0.071 μmol/min/g using the SKM and SUVmax ≤1.45) need to be tested for their utility in identifying patients with a high risk of residual cancerafter standard dose radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy and in guiding a timely supplementary dose of radiation or other means of salvage therapy.