Conatumumab is an antibody (a type of immune system protein) that targets TR-2, a protein that is expressed in tumor tissue in a variety of cancer types. A phase II study of patients with previously untreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving either conatumumab or placebo in combination with standard paclitaxel (Taxol)–carboplatin (Paraplatin) chemotherapy showed that conatumumab was well tolerated, but did not improve clinical outcomes. However, it is possible that, in patients selected for relevant biomarkers, conatumumab may show effectiveness that is not seen in an unselected patient population.
A review of recent research discusses EGFR inhibition in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Blocking EGFR using drugs called EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is an effective treatment for advanced NSCLC in patients with mutations in the EGFR gene. However, chemotherapy remains the standard of care for advanced NSCLC without EGFR mutations. Unfortunately, patients commonly develop drug resistance to TKIs like erlotinib (Tarceva) or gefitinib (Iressa). Newer TKIs like afatinib, which target multiple proteins and irreversibly inhibit them, are being explored in clinical trials and may be effective in patients who have become resistant to first-generation TKIs.
In a recent phase I/IIA study, patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) that had not previously been treated were given a drug called pomalidomide. The pomalidomide treatment was combined with standard chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin (Platinol) and etoposide (Etopophos/Toposar). Pomalidomide appeared to be safe, with a maximum tolerated dose of 4 mg per day. However, it did not appear to increase the efficacy or decrease the toxicity of the chemotherapy.