After Promising Early Results, Drug to Continue Testing in More Relapsed SCLC Patients

The gist: In a clinical trial, a new drug called PM1183 showed promise for treating people with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Based on those results, the drug will be tested in more people in a new phase III clinical trial. PM1183 will be given to patients along with the drug doxorubicin. For comparison, some patients will only be treated with the drug topotecan. The trial will enroll patients who have SCLC that returned (relapsed) after standard treatment.

“Zeltia announces today that its pharmaceutical division PharmaMar will start a Phase III trial with PM1183 in combination with doxorubicin against topotecan in SCLC, given the activity observed in an interim analysis of an ongoing Phase Ib trial. The results of this study will be presented at a prominent international cancer meeting this year, which will be soon announced.

“Patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) after failure of standard chemotherapy, as well as bladder, gastric, breast, endometrial or ovarian cancer, neuroendocrine tumors and soft-tissue sarcomas were treated with the combination in a Phase I. The treatment showed efficacy across all cancer types, including several complete responses. This clinical response was remarkable in certain tumor types, particularly in SCLC, and consequently more patients with this type of tumor were enrolled. The treatment was generally well-tolerated, and these patients had marked objective tumor responses and were able to receive several cycles of treatment.

” ‘The data we have are very exciting as patients with SCLC have the worst prognosis among lung cancer patient. There have been no significant advances in 25 years in this type of lung cancer.’ says Luis Mora, Managing Director, PharmaMar.”


New Agent Causes Small Cell Lung Tumors to Shrink in Pre-Clinical Testing

The gist: Scientists are working on a potential new treatment for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) that looks promising in mice, but it has not yet been tested in patients. The drug is called THZ1. In mice, it shrank tumors significantly. It may soon be tested in patients in clinical trials.

“Small cell lung cancer – a disease for which no new drugs have been approved for many years – has shown itself vulnerable to an agent that disables part of tumor cells’ basic survival machinery, researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology reported.

“In a study published today in the journal Cancer Cell, the investigators found that the agent THZ1 caused human-like small cell lung tumors in mice to shrink significantly, with no apparent side effects. The compound is now being developed into a drug for testing in human patients in clinical trials.

” ‘Small cell lung cancer is a disease for which new treatments are desperately needed,’ said Kwok-Kin Wong, MD, PhD, co-senior author of the study and medical oncologist at Dana-Farber. ‘Patients generally respond well to initial chemotherapy, but the disease almost always returns. Less than 5 percent of patients are alive five years after being diagnosed with the disease.’ “


Amrubicin Edges Topotecan for Survival in Refractory SCLC

“Amrubicin failed to improve survival over topotecan as second-line therapy for patients with sensitive small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), according to results of a new randomized phase III trial. There was, however, a small overall survival benefit seen in patients with refractory disease.

“ ‘SCLC is the most aggressive type of lung cancer,’ wrote researchers led by Joachim von Pawel, MD, of Asklepios Fachkliniken München-Gauting in Germany. ‘Despite encouraging phase II results for many targeted therapies and newer chemotherapeutic agents, current large phase III trials have failed to show improvement compared with standard of care.’ Currently, topotecan is the only approved drug for second-line therapy in SCLC patients sensitive to initial treatment; earlier work suggested the third-generation anthracycline and topoisomerase II inhibitor amrubicin could have strong activity in these patients.

“The new study included 637 patients with refractory or sensitive SCLC, assigned 2:1 to amrubicin or topotecan. The median overall survival was 7.5 months with amrubicin and 7.8 months with topotecan, for a hazard ratio of 0.880 (95% CI, 0.733-1.057; P = .170).”


Molecular Tumor Markers Could Reveal New Therapeutic Targets for Lung Cancer Treatment

The gist: New research looking into tumor mutations in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and neuroendocrine tumors (NET) may open up new drug options to treat these conditions. Drugs called targeted therapies have been developed to treat people with tumors that have certain genetic mutations. Several targeted therapies are available for people with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). But so far, targeted therapies have not been very useful in SCLC. Now, researchers have found that some SCLC and NET tumors may share some tumor mutations with NSCLC tumors. Theoretically, a patient with SCLC or NET could ask their oncologist for molecular testing to see whether their tumor(s) could potentially be treated off-label with an existing NSCLC drug. To learn more about SCLC treatment, see our Need to Know blog.

“Analysis of 607 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) lung tumors and neuroendocrine tumors (NET) identified common molecular markers among both groups that could reveal new therapeutic targets for patients with similar types of lung cancer, according to research presented today at the 2014 Chicago Multidisciplinary Symposium in Thoracic Oncology. The Symposium is sponsored by the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) and The University of Chicago Medicine.

“This study examined the clinical specimens of 607 total cases of SCLC tumors (375) and lung NET (232), which included carcinoid, atypical carcinoid and large-cell neuroendocrine tumors. Biomarker testing was achieved through a combination of DNA sequencing (Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) or Sanger-based); immunohistochemistry (IHC) to identify which proteins are present; and in situ hybridization (ISH) testing, a form of gene amplification, to determine if any of the markers that can cause cancer cells to grow or to become resistant to treatment are present…

” ‘Even cancers that appear to be very similar can be dramatically different at the molecular level, and these differences may reflect unique vulnerabilities that could positively impact therapeutic options and decisions,’ said Stephen V. Liu, MD, senior study author and Assistant Professor of Medicine in the Division of Hematology/Oncology at Georgetown University’s Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center in Washington, DC. ‘We are pleased that this research confirms these rarer subtypes; it calls for additional investigation on a larger scale. Once confirmed, molecular profiling of small cell tumors and NET could become standard, as it is currently for non-small cell lung cancers, which will be especially important as more molecularly targeted chemotherapy agents are developed.’ “


Cancer Care: Post-Surgical Mortality Risk, Tumor Boards (CME/CE)

Note: This article includes three different stories for cancer patients. Two are excerpted below.

“Patients who died within a month of cancer surgery had unfavorable social and demographics that appeared to confer high risk, a review of records for more than 1 million people showed.

“The patients at highest risk of early death tended to be unmarried, uninsured, nonwhite, male, older, less education, poorer, and to have more advanced disease at surgery. The results suggest that reducing sociodemographic disparities in cancer care, including access, has the potential to improve cancer outcomes, Brandon A. Mahal, a medical student at Harvard University, reported at the American Society of Clinical Oncology Quality Care Symposium…

“Patients with advanced colorectal or small cell lung cancer (SCLC) had better survival when their oncologists participated at least weekly in tumor board meetings, according to a study of 4,600 patients and 1,600 oncologists.

“Frequent oncologist participation in tumor boards was associated with about a 30% reduction in the mortality hazard for patients with stage IV colorectal cancer and about a 40% reduction in the hazard for extensive SCLC. Oncologists who participated in weekly tumor boards also were more likely to discuss and refer patients to clinical trials and to pursue curative surgery for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

” ‘Patients with disease subtypes for which we found a link between physician tumor board participation and improved outcomes may want to ask their doctor if their case will be reviewed at a multidisciplinary meeting,’ Kenneth L. Kehl, MD, of the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, said in a statement.

” ‘However, this was not a randomized study; as there were few associations overall between tumor boards and patient survival, our findings cannot demonstrate conclusively that physician tumor board participation directly affects patient outcomes.’ ”


Aldoxorubicin Receives FDA Orphan Drug Designations for Glioblastoma, Small Cell Lung Cancer, and Ovarian Cancer

The gist: When a newly developed drug for a rare (“orphan”) disease seems particularly promising for patients, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may choose to grant it “orphan drug designation.” The designation removes certain barriers that might otherwise keep a drug company from being able to successfully develop and profit from the drug in the U.S. A new drug called aldoxorubicin has just received an orphan drug designation for the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), glioblastoma multiforme, and ovarian cancer. Aldoxorubicin is a special version of the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin. It allows for higher doses of doxorubicin with fewer side effects.

“The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Orphan Drug Designations to aldoxorubicin in three indications: glioblastoma multiforme, small cell lung cancer, and ovarian cancer. Aldoxorubicin combines doxorubicin with a novel single-molecule linker that binds directly and specifically to albumin, allowing greater doses of the chemotherapeutic agent to be administered while reducing its toxic side effects.

“Aldoxorubicin is currently being studied in a global phase III clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of aldoxorubicin as a second-line treatment for patients with soft-tissue sarcoma. CytRx, a biopharmaceutical research and development company, is also evaluating aldoxorubicin in two phase II clinical trials, one in patients with late-stage glioblastoma multiforme and the other in HIV-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. A global phase IIb trial in patients with relapsed small cell lung cancer is expected to commence later this month, and the company is undertaking a phase Ib combination study of aldoxorubicin plus gemcitabine as a potential precursor to a trial in relapsed ovarian cancer.”


Thoracic RT Improves Long-Term Survival in Extensive-Stage SCLC

The gist: This article discusses the results of a clinical trial—a research study with volunteer patients. The goal of the trial was to examine the effectiveness of a new treatment for extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC). The treatment adds thoracic (chest) radiotherapy to standard treatment with chemotherapy and cranial (head) radiotherapy. Patients in the trial who received the new treatment had significantly improved outcomes.

“The addition of thoracic radiotherapy to chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation significantly improved 2-year survival and other outcomes in patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC), according to results of a new phase III randomized trial.

“Survival for ES-SCLC is poor, and has improved little in recent decades,” wrote study authors led by Ben J. Slotman, MD, of VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam. Though previous research has shown prophylactic cranial irradiation can improve outcomes, intrathoracic disease often remains a problem. In this study, the investigators compared 247 patients who received thoracic radiotherapy with 248 patients who did not; all patients underwent prophylactic cranial irradiation. The results were published online ahead of print on September 14 in the Lancet.

“The median overall survival at 1 year was no different between the groups, at 33% in the thoracic radiotherapy group and 28% in the control patients, for a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.69-1.01; P = .066). But a secondary analysis of 2-year survival did show improvement, at 13% in the radiotherapy group vs 3% in the control patients (P = .004). The number of patients needed to treat to avoid one death was 10.6.”


Some Lung Cancer Patients Could Live Longer When Treated with New Radiotherapy Strategy

The gist: A type of radiation treatment called thoracic radiotherapy may help some lung cancer patients live longer after chemotherapy. That was the conclusion of a recent clinical trial—a research study with volunteer patients.

“The authors say that as the thoracic radiotherapy is well tolerated, it should to be routinely offered to all SCLC patients with extensive disease whose cancer responds to chemotherapy.

“SCLC is an aggressive cancer that accounts for about 13% of all lung cancers. The majority of patients present with extensive disease that has spread to other areas of the body.

” ‘In recent years, we have made some progress in improving survival by giving prophylactic cranial radiotherapy (radiation to the head to reduce the risk of the cancer spreading to the brain) after chemotherapy, and this is now considered the standard of care. However, survival for patients with extensive disease remains poor (2-year survival of less than 5%) and the likelihood of the cancer recurring and spreading to other parts of the body remains high’, explains Ben Slotman, lead author and Professor of Radiation Oncology at the VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam, Netherlands…

“Writing in a linked Comment, Jan P van Meerbeeck from Ghent and Antwerp University in Belgium and David Ball from The University of Melbourne in Australia point out, ‘Refreshingly, the radiotherapy in Slotman and colleagues’ study was not technically complex and it would be easy to provide at low cost in even the most modestly resourced radiotherapy departments.’ “


Novel Oncogenic RET Mutation Found in Small Cell Lung Cancer

Editor’s note: An oncologist will sometimes test a patient’s tumor for specific mutations in order to decide what the best treatment options are. Tumors that have certain mutations can sometimes be treated with certain so-called targeted therapy drugs. This approach has worked well for many people with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, there are no FDA-approved targeted therapies for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). A new discovery might change that. Researchers found a mutation called RET M918T in a metastatic SCLC tumor. Two targeted drugs were found to fight against tumor cells with the mutation in the lab. The drugs—ponatinib and vandetanib—are already FDA-approved to treat other types of cancer.

“For the first time, an oncogenic somatic mutation at amino acid 918 in the rearranged during transfection protein has been identified in small cell lung cancer tumors and enforced expression of this mutation within small cell lung cancer tumor cell lines produced increased intracellular signaling and cell growth.

“SCLC is a highly malignant form of lung cancer representing 15% of all lung cancers and is strongly associated with tobacco smoking. NSCLC, representing 85% of lung cancer, has been extensively examined for genomic alterations and targeted therapies are approved for patients with certain mutations, however SCLC has not been examined with the same rigor and there are no approved targeted therapies for SCLC.

“Investigators at Case Western University examined 6 SCLC tumors, 3 each from primary and metastatic tumors, for 238 somatic mutations across 19 oncogenes. RET wild type and mutant protein was then overexpressed in SCLC cell lines and these cell lines were examined for cell signaling, cell growth and responsiveness to two tyrosine kinase inhibitors of RET.”