Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) constitute only about 3% to 5% of all pancreatic cancers. Compared to the most common pancreatic cancer—adenocarcinoma (aka exocrine tumors), PNETs have a longer disease course and better prognosis; the 5-year survival rate is 42% for PNETs, but only about 5% to 6% for adenocarcinomas. When PNETs are localized, they can usually be removed by surgery. However, PNETs tend to metastasize, most often to the liver, and present a formidable treatment challenge at this stage. Continue reading…
Cancers that arise in the lung are mostly of the type known as NSCLC (non-small cell lung carcinoma). A much smaller proportion of lung tumors arise from neuroendocrine cells in the lungs. These cells (which are also found in most other organs) secrete a variety of hormones that are necessary for normal organ function, as well as for healing after injury or infection. Like other lung cells, neuroendocrine cells may transform to become cancers. Lung cancers that arise from neuroendocrine cells are called pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), or lung NETs. Continue reading…
“The use of maintenance sunitinib improved progression-free survival (PFS) over placebo among patients with untreated extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) in a new phase II study.
“ ‘Most of the 30,000 patients newly diagnosed each year with SCLC in the United States have extensive-stage disease,’ wrote study authors led by Neal E. Ready, MD, PhD, of Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina. ‘Despite achieving good disease control initially, patients with SCLC usually experience relapse within 6 months of first-line chemotherapy and often do not respond to subsequent chemotherapy.’
“In previous studies, maintenance chemotherapy after standard platinum-based therapy did not show any overall survival benefit. The new study aimed to test whether sunitinib, a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that inhibits VEGF receptors and other targets. Results of the new study were published online ahead of print in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
“The study enrolled a total of 144 patients, 49 of whom progressed or did not complete induction chemotherapy; 95 patients were randomly assigned to a placebo maintenance therapy group (46 patients) or a sunitinib maintenance therapy group (49 patients), and five patients on each arm did not receive the maintenance therapy. Sunitinib patients received 37.5 mg per day until progression.”
Editor’s note: More and more people with cancer are being treated with drugs known as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). As with any other drug, oncologists who prescribe TKIs must be aware of other drugs a patient is taking to ensure there will not be a dangerous drug-drug interaction. Researchers recently published a report outlining known and potential drug-drug interactions between TKIs and other drugs. Oncologists and patients may wish to take these into account when considering cancer treatment with TKIs.
“With the rapid and widespread uptake of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in oncology over the past several years, serious drug–drug interactions are an “increasing risk,” according a new report.
“To guarantee the safe use of TKIs, ‘a drugs review for each patient is needed,’ write Frank G.A. Jansman, PharmD, PhD, from Deventer Hospital in the Netherlands, and colleagues in a review published in the July issue of the Lancet Oncology.
“The review provides a comprehensive overview of known and suspected interactions between TKIs and conventional prescribed drugs, over-the-counter drugs, and herbal medicines.
“All 15 TKIs approved to date by the US Food and Drug Administration or the European Medicines Agency are evaluated.
“They are axitinib (Inlyta, Pfizer), crizotinib (Xalkori, Pfizer), dasatinib (Sprycel, Bristol-Myers Squibb and Otsuka America), erlotinib (Tarceva, Osi Pharmaceuticals), gefitinib (Iressa, AstraZeneca), imatinib (Gleevec, Novartis), lapatinib (Tykerb, GlaxoSmithKline), nilotinib (Tasigna, Novartis), pazopanib (Votrient, GlaxoSmithKline), regorafenib (Stivarga, Bayer), ruxolitinib (Jakafi, Incyte), sorafenib (Nexavar, Bayer), sunitinib (Sutent, Pfizer), vandetanib (Caprelsa, AstraZeneca), and vemurafenib (Zelboraf, Roche).”
A randomized, phase II trial showed improved progression-free survival in small-cell lung cancer with maintenance sunitinib vs placebo following standard chemotherapy, according to results presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) in Chicago.