“An update of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) clinical practice guideline clarifies the role of immunotherapy in the treatment of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The update also provides new recommendations on the use of targeted therapies for patients with changes in tumor EGFR, ALK, and ROS1 genes.
” ‘Treatment for lung cancer has become increasingly more complex over the last several years. This guideline update provides oncologists the tools to choose therapies that are most likely to benefit their patients,’ said Nasser Hanna, MD, co-chair of the Expert Panel that developed the guideline update.”
“A new analysis indicates that breast cancer prognoses have improved over time in young women treated with breast conserving surgery. The analysis included 1331 patients younger than 40 years treated with breast conserving surgery and whole breast radiotherapy in a single cancer centre in Italy between 1997 and 2010.
“Breast cancer recurrences and deaths significantly decreased over time. A dramatic improvement in prognosis was observed after 2005, when the use of several new diagnostic and treatment strategies were implemented in routine clinical practice.”
“Like many men diagnosed with prostate cancer, Bill Pickett faced a tough question when he came to UCLA for treatment: how to fight it?
“Prostate cancer is one of the more curable cancers—it has a 96 percent survival rate 15 years after diagnosis, according to the American Cancer Society. The options men have after a diagnosis have different side effects and trade-offs. So choosing, for example, between radiation therapy or surgery, can be complicated for a person.”
“For patients, like Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz.), who develop aggressive brain cancer, the first-line treatment is almost always radiation and chemotherapy. But if the glioblastoma recurs, and it almost always does, what then?
“The answer could be one of the many experimental treatments being tested in clinical trials across the country. Depending on how you count them, there are dozens or hundreds of trials, many of which are focused on immunotherapy, a new approach designed to spur the immune system to attack cancer.”
“Of the women who carry the mutated BRCA1/2 genes, 45-65 percent will develop breast cancer, and 15-39 percent will develop ovarian cancer in their lifetimes. Many women, especially those who have experienced the death of family members to these cancers, elect to undergo preventive surgeries that can significantly increase life expectancy, but require extensive recovery time and can impact later fertility and quality-of-life. However, few guidelines exist that shed light on the optimal age to undergo these procedures, and in what sequence. A new study in the INFORMS journal Decision Analysis provides insight to help enable physicians and patients make better-informed choices.
“The study, ‘Was Angelina Jolie Right? Optimizing Cancer Prevention Strategies Among BRCA Mutation Carriers,’ was conducted by Eike Nohdurft and Stefan Spinler of the Otto Beisheim School of Management, and Elisa Long, of the UCLA Anderson School of Management.”
“The largest and longest trial to compare treatment options for prostate cancer has found little difference in outcomes between men who underwent surgery vs. those who were simply observed by their doctors.
“Led by a researcher at the Minneapolis VA Medical Center, the 20-year national study provides the best evidence yet that most men can live with their prostate cancers, avoiding the potential risks of surgery. The results, though, did show that surgery was probably a better option for younger men with long life expectancies, and some urologists dispute the findings.”
“Proton-beam therapy (PBT) was found to be safe for patients with limited-stage (LS) small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) in the first prospective registry study of the therapy, with only a small number of high-grade toxicities.
” ‘Radiation therapy is essential for the management of limited-stage SCLC,’ wrote study authors led by Jean-Claude M. Rwigema, MD, of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. ‘When it is given with concurrent chemotherapy, radiation therapy can result in substantial toxicities.’ PBT can reduce the exposure to nearby organs at risk in non–small-cell lung cancer, and is under substantial investigation in that setting; before the new study, though, only a six-patient case series had examined its use in SCLC.”
“A molecular test can pinpoint which patients will have a very low risk of death from breast cancer even 20 years after diagnosis and tumor removal, according to a new clinical study led by UC San Francisco in collaboration with colleagues in Sweden. As a result, ‘ultralow’ risk patients could be treated less aggressively and overtreatment avoided, leading to fewer toxic effects.
” ‘This is an important step forward for personalizing care for women with breast cancer,’ said lead author Laura J. Esserman, MD, MBA, a breast cancer specialist and surgeon with UC Health. ‘We can now test small node-negative breast cancers, and if they are in the ultralow risk category, we can tell women that they are highly unlikely to die of their cancers and do not need aggressive treatment, including radiation after lumpectomy.’ ”
“Patients who receive the standard surgical treatment for melanoma that has spread to one or more key lymph nodes do not live longer, a major new study shows.
“The study, published today in The New England Journal of Medicine, found that immediately removing and performing biopsies on all lymph nodes located near the original tumor, a procedure called completion lymph node dissection, did not result in increased overall survival rates.”