A Treatment Vaccine for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

Excerpt:

“A Louisiana-based biopharmaceutical company is betting that its experimental immunotherapeutic vaccine can keep previously untreated prostate cancer in check.

“The company, OncBioMune Pharnaceuticals, Inc, in Baton Rouge, is planning to test the vaccine, dubbed ProscaVax, in a phase 2 trial for patients with previously untreated prostate cancer and in a second trial for patients with recurrent or hormone-refractory disease.

“The trial of a treatment vaccine in untreated, low-risk prostate cancer patients is novel.”

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Video: Efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors in Melanoma

“Jason J. Luke, MD, FACP, assistant professor of medicine, The University of Chicago, discusses the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in melanoma. The combination of these inhibitors, nivolumab and ipilimumab, was used to treat patients with previously untreated, unresectable or metastatic melanoma, in the Checkmate 069 study.

“Luke says PD-L1 is very complex and difficult when developing immunohistochemical assays. Since several pharmaceutical companies conduct different assays that test various things, a particular patient may be positive in one case, but not in another. For this reason, patients become very confused.

“Luke also mentions that there is no validated method across the board, so it is difficult to determine the next steps going forward.”


FDA Approves Iressa for EGFR Metastatic Lung Cancer

“Iressa (gefitinib) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a specific genetic mutation (epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]). A just-approved companion diagnostic test can identify patients who could benefit from this new use.

“Iressa is a kinase inhibitor, a class of drugs designed to block proteins that spur development of cancer cells. The therascreen EGFR RGQ PCR Kit is a newly approved diagnostic that can help doctors detect patients with the genetic mutation who are candidates for treatment with Iressa.

“Iressa was evaluated for this use in clinical trials involving 106 people with previously untreated EGFR mutation-positive metastatic NSCLC. Tumors shrank in about 50 percent of people treated with Iressa 250 mg once daily. This effect lasted an average of six months, the FDA said. Severe side effects of Iressa may include interstitial lung disease, liver damage, gastrointestinal perforation, severe diarrhea, and ocular disorders. More common side effects are diarrhea and skin reactions.”


Cobimetinib and Vemurafenib Combination Treatment Is Highly Active in BRAF+ Melanoma

“Roche (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY) today announced follow-up data from two studies of the investigational MEK inhibitor cobimetinib in combination with Zelboraf® (vemurafenib). Updated data from the pivotal coBRIM Phase III study showed the combination helped people with previously untreated BRAF V600 mutation-positive advanced melanoma live a median of one year (12.3 months) without their disease worsening or death (progression-free survival; PFS) compared to 7.2 months with Zelboraf alone (hazard ratio [HR]=0.58, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 0.46-0.72).1

“ ‘The combination of cobimetinib and Zelboraf extended the time people lived without their disease getting worse to a year,’ said Sandra Horning, M.D., Chief Medical Officer and Head of Global Product Development. ‘These results are exciting because they underscore the importance of combining medicines that target the signals, which cause about half of all melanomas to grow.’ “


Nivolumab Better than Chemotherapy in Untreated Melanoma

The gist: People with advanced melanoma who have not yet been treated might benefit from the drug nivolumab (Opdivo). In December, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Opdivo for people who had tried other treatments unsuccessfully. Now, a new clinical trial shows that patients without prior treatment survive longer on Opdivo than chemotherapy.

“The PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab significantly increased overall survival compared with chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated metastatic melanoma without a BRAF mutation. In addition, the drug more than doubled the progression-free survival among these patients.

“ ‘The risk of death decreased by 58% with nivolumab, as compared with dacarbazine, among previously untreated patients with advanced melanoma,’ wrote study author Caroline Robert, MD, PhD, of INSERM Unité 981, Gustave Roussy, and colleagues. ‘The survival benefit was consistent across all the prespecified subgroups, including patients with poor prognostic factors.’

“The results of the phase III double-blind study were published in the January 22 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.”


Pfizer's Xalkori Shows First-Line Benefit in ALK-Positive NSCLC

The gist: The drug Xalkori (aka crizotinib) has shown promise for treating people with a certain type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have not yet taken any other treatment. A clinical trial tested Xalkori in untreated NSCLC patients whose tumors had mutations of the ALK gene (“ALK-positive”). People who took Xalkori in the trial had almost 4 more months before their cancer worsened than people who took only chemotherapy.

“Pfizer’s targeted cancer therapy Xalkori (crizotinib) significantly extended progression-free survival in previously-untreated patients with a particular form of non-small cell lung cancer taking part in a late-stage trial compared to chemotherapy alone.

“Data from the Phase III PROFILE 1014 study, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, showed that patients with ALK-positive advanced NSCLC given Pfizer’s kinase inhibitor had a median PFS of 10.9 months compared to 7 months for those in the chemotherapy arm. Also, the objective response rate was much higher at 74% versus 45%, the firm noted.

“On the safety side, no unexpected issues arose in the trial, with the most commonly reported adverse events observed in the Xalkori being vision disorder (71%), diarrohea (61%), nausea (56%) and oedema (49%), and with chemotherapy, nausea (59%), fatigue (38%), vomiting (36%) and decreased appetite (34%).

“ALK gene rearrangements are present in about 5% of NSCLC cancers typically occurring in younger patients who don’t smoke. By identifying and enrolling only those patients whose advanced NSCLC tumours are ALK-positive, “this trial was able to demonstrate the superiority of Xalkori over an intravenous platinum-based chemotherapy regimen that has been a standard first-line treatment for more than a decade,” said Mace Rothenberg, chief medical officer for Pfizer Oncology.”